EiT 2 2013

Wpływ rodzaju lodów familijnych na zmiany ich cech podczas przechowywania
INFLUENCE OF TYPE OF FAMILY SIZE ICE CREAM ON CHANGES OF THEIR PROPERTIES DURING STORAGE

Ice storage studies of family–size ice cream of vanilla and chocolate flavors, produced by two manufacturers, were conducted. The research material was stored for 360 days in three different temperature variations. Conversion quality rated on the basis of performed every 30 days organoleptic assessment, determination of fluffiness, acidity, dry matter content and melting. With the exception of fluffiness differences were found between the importance of the investigated characteristics of family–size ice cream undergoing tests, according to their manufacturer. Rated ice cream had a high level of quality.
Key words: ice cream, storage, temperature fluctuation, quality changes, analysis of variance
A. Palka, P. Palich            str. 51


Natężenie emisji wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych (WWA) na krajowych autostradach
EMISSION INTENSITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) ON NATIONAL MOTORWAYS

The increased road transport connected with an increase in the number of vehicles and new high capacity transit roads generates a new range of environmental hazards, particularly in the areas where express and motorways are located. This work presents a comparison of PAHs emission activity on selected sections of national motorways. The release of PAHs (BaP, BbF, BkF and IcdP) in fuel combustion processes and tyre wear were taken into account. The fallout of PAHs in a 200 meter roadside strip was estimated to assess potential contamination of the grounds located along the transport routes under investigation.
Key words: PAHs, emission intensity, road transport, highways
R. Świetlik, M. Strzelecka, J. Odzimek                                     str. 55


Opalanie paliwami odpadowymi kotłów energetycznych
FIRING THE POWER BOILERS WITH THE WASTE FUEL

Solid biomass is currently the largest source of renewable energy in Poland. The basic methods of using biomass in power plants are carried out by its incineration (as a primary fuel) or co–firing with another alternative fuel. Preparation of special fuels based on waste (briquettes, pellets, etc.) is also involved. The problem of the energy use of biomass coming from the municipal waste is particularly relevant in terms of Polish obligations arising from the Accession Treaty and the law on waste, concerning reduction of landfilling of biodegradable waste and form a biomass classified as a renewable energy source (RES).
However, the so far applied technology of waste incineration in power boilers equipped with various types of grates does not provide a complete ecological safety. Because the incineration process form ash and slag that may contain up to 30% of combustible material. The received ash therefore should be stored further on or further utilized. The performed studies of the basic physicochemical and kinetic properties of the main morphological types of municipal waste have shown that the effect of total and complete combustion of municipal waste in boilers equipped with various types of grates is not possible to obtain.
Key words: Municipal waste, biomass, thermal utilization, boiler
H. Karcz, S. Szczepaniak, M. Kantorek, P. Dziugan, K. Wierzbicki                    str. 62


The impact of assessment of post used wind power plant plastics and materials on the environment and human health – part II: the research results
OCENA WPŁYWU TWORZYW I MATERIAŁÓW POUŻYTKOWYCH ELEKTROWNI WIATROWYCH NA ŚRODOWISKO NATURALNE I ZDROWIE CZŁOWIEKA – CZĘŚĆ II: WYNIKI BADAŃ

W opracowaniu przedstawiono ekologiczną ocenę wpływu tworzyw, materiałów i elementów poużytkowych, stosowanych w elektrowniach wiatrowych, na zdrowie człowieka oraz środowisko naturalne. Analiza cyklu życia została przeprowadzona wg standardu metody LCA (Life Cycle Assesment) i wykorzystaniu programu komputerowego SimaPro 7.1. Dokonano oceny wpływu konstrukcji, produkcji, eksploatacji oraz zagospodarowania poużytkowego elektrowni wiatrowych na środowisko naturalne i zdrowie człowieka. Przeprowadzono badania na przykładzie elektrowni Gamesa G90 – 2 MW i oceniono jej cykl życia, co umożliwiło przewidzenie środowiskowych skutków koncepcji, konstrukcji, budowy i działania elektrowni wiatrowych w całym cyklu życia oraz środowiskowych skutków działania elektrowni wiatrowych.
Słowa kluczowe: LCA, odnawialne źródła energii, potencjał środowiskowy, siłownia wiatrowa, zdrowie człowieka
I. Piasecka                                                str. 78


Problemy rozwoju technologicznego energii odnawialnej
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

In this article problems in development of energy sourcing technologies from renewable resources in respect to energy policy anticipations have been presented, as basic condition of renewable energy development in Europe is ability to execute targets intended in European Energy Policy. Main targets of this energy policy are: long term security of energy supply, higher effectiveness of energy use, reduction of thermo–gas emission and promotion/supporting of new advanced technologies of energy production from renewable energy sources. The renewable energy plays substantial role in strategy of European Energy Policy. Apart from improvement in effectiveness and in energy supply security, energy produced from renewable sources contributes to limit climate changes. It decreases dependence from vulnerable and fast growing prices of conventional energy sources (petrol, gas, coal), while at the same time market of technology development sourcing renewable energy contributes to higher competitiveness. Tendency to increase share of such energy sources in total electric energy balance requires adequate supporting systems, which  enable development of  renewable Technologies.
Polish energy system stays in front of serious challenges. High demand for energy, low level of development of energy producing and transporting infrastructure, high dependence from external supply of gas and petrol, as well as obligations for environment protection require a need for steps towards: energy effectiveness increase, guarantee of energy sourcing security and limitation of climate changes. Development of renewable energy technologies and adequate supporting mechanisms addressed to renewable energy producers should result in effective execution of intended targets of Energy Policy.
Key words: renewable energy, technological development
J. Czerna–Grygiel                                            str. 86


 

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