EiT 5_2013

Automonitor

AUTOMONITOR

The work discusses the basics of active monitoring, creative and cognitive machinery process, technical systems, technologies, and the environment control.

Key words: monitoring, cognitive control

J. B. Flizikowski                                                                                                                                  str. 185


Impact of a wind power plants life cycle on the state of the atmosphere

WPŁYW CYKLU ŻYCIA ELEKTROWNI WIATROWYCH NA STAN ATMOSFERY

W opracowaniu przybliżono aktualny stan energetyki wiatrowej w Polsce. Omówiono najważniejsze założenia metody LCA. Przedstawiono wyniki analizy destrukcyjnego oddziaływania systemu elektrowni wiatrowej na stan atmosfery, na przykładzie lądowej elektrowni wiatrowej Gamesa G90.

Słowa kluczowe: cykl życia, elektrownia wiatrowa, metoda LCA, odnawialne źródła energii, stan atmosfery

I. Piasecka, A. Tomporowski                                                                                                                str. 191

  Rozkład szeregu czasowego poziomu temperatury podczas spalania słomy w kotle wsadowym

DISTRIBUTION OF TIME SERIES OF STRAW COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE IN A BATCH BOILER

This paper presents the characteristics of the combustion process of straw. To achieve this aim a low–power batch boiler was selected, burning (combusting) straw cubes. Technical and elemental analyses of fuel combustion were carried out, and humidity ranges for individual cubes were specified. Temperature measurement system dedicated to determining the dynamics of its distribution was described, and the measurement points characteristic for given units were also described. The results of time series analyses of temperature levels for three cycles are provided. Based on the obtained data time of a single cycle of batch combustion was specified, and the characteristic stages of that cycle were defined and described.

Batch boilers for solid fuel have a high thermal inertia. Difficulties related to controlling the combustion processes resulting from the heterogeneity of the fuel parameters and boilers’ design were described. The method of regulating and controlling the combustion process in these units becomes a major challenge of design and technology, aimed at efficient transformation and utilization of fuel energy and understanding the dynamics of the process is crucial to their development.

Key words: batch boiler, dynamic of straw combustion process, temperature level, temperature measurement system, technical and elemental analysis of straw

M. Janicki                                                                                                                                           str. 196

Biogazownia o mocy 1,6 MW

BIOGAS PLANT WITH A CAPACITY 1,6 MW

As a result of thinking about a comprehensive resources of fossil fuels, natural sources of energy become even more reasonable. Of increasing importance is the thread to build installations for the production of biogas. In order to present a biogas plant in Poland, as a source of fill of EU energy directives, indicated the installation was built in Mełno. Also described the situation in Germany in order to indicate the possibilities and potential that comes from biogas.

Key words: biogas, biogas plant, bio power station, renewable energy sources, cogeneration, Mełno

P. Wawer                                                                                                                                           str. 204

 Biomasa i wysuszony osad ściekowy paliwem odnawialnym

BIOMASS AND SEWER SEDIMENT AS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE ENERGY

There is proposed a way of usage of dried sewage sediment with 90 % of dry mass as fuel to co–incineration with rape straw and next submitted to the process of gasification in order to increase the efficiency of the process. The purpose of putting into use that kind of fuel is to increase the possibility to obtain additional energy resources. The results of research on usage of fuel from sewage sediment and straw were presented.

Key words: biomass, dried sewage sediment, coburning/coincineration, gasifying, thermal process, heat

M. Szymczak, A. Mroziński                                                                                                                 str. 210

 Zalety i bariery rozwoju energetyki wiatrowej

THE PROCESS OF INVESTMENT IN WIND ENERGY

Analysis of the current socio–economic situation in the world shows that the share of wind energy in electricity generation is steadily increasing. In particular, this applies to EU countries where major problems have recently become the behavior of energy security and climate change.

Wind energy is currently the most advanced technology in renewable energy in the European Union. It has the greatest potential for energy of all types of renewable energy sources. This potential is to a large extent is not used. In this situation affected the multiplicity of barriers and limitations of spatial and social landscape. Enthusiastic reactions of many communities in the development of wind energy which took place at the beginning of the last decade, now in opposition are the voices doubts about the impact of wind farms on the natural and cultural environment. Is also growing public resistance in response to the rapid development of wind power in rural areas, especially in the case of wind turbines used to locate older generation. The rapid development of wind energy are not well adapted transmission grids.

However, despite these limitations, well thought out, planned and optimally planned wind farms have a chance to meet the principles of sustainable development.

Key words: wind energy, renewable energy, energy infrastructure, social protests, spatio–environmental constraints, the process of investments

K. Napieraj, M. Stańczak                                                                                                                     str. 215

 Review of applications of LCA for wastewater treatment plants

PRZEGLĄD ZASTOSOWAŃ LCA DLA OCZYSZCZALNI ŚCIEKÓW

Artykuł nawiązuje do aktualnych problemów budowy nowych oczyszczalni ścieków oraz modernizacji istniejących zgodnie z Aktualizacją Krajowego Planu Oczyszczania Ścieków Komunalnych z 2009 r. z uwzględnieniem aspektów ich oddziaływania na środowisko oraz optymalizacji kosztów oczyszczania ścieków. Wskazuje Ocenę Cyklu Życia jako odpowiednie narzędzie wspomagające wybór najlepszego wariantu czy poziomu modernizacji oczyszczalni. Przedstawia charakterystykę metody LCA oraz przykłady zastosowania do oceny technologii oczyszczania ścieków w Polsce i za granicą.

Słowa kluczowe: LCA, Ocena Cyklu Życia, Oczyszczalnia Ścieków

K. Iwaniuk, T. Buchwald                                                                                                                      str. 222

Studies on the charge density distribution in p–substituted phenylnitrenium cation

BADANIA NAD ROZKŁADEM GĘSTOŚCI ŁADUNKU W P–PODSTAWIONYM KATIONIE FENYLONITRENIOWYM

Anilina i jej pochodne wykazują właściwości mutageniczne. Ta aktywność wywołana jest powstawaniem kationu fenylonitreniowego podczas utleniania aniliny. W niniejszej publikacji, zbadana została dystrybucja gęstości ładunku w p–podstawionym kationie fenylonitreniowym. Przeanalizowano, wartości indeksów reaktywności, takich jak twardość η, elektroujemność χ , elektrofilowość ω oraz wartości ładunków Mullikena, NBO, CHelpG i APT. Aby stwierdzić które parametry są najlepsze do oceny gęstości elektronowej obliczono współczynniki korelacji dla tych parametrów z wartościami stałych podstawnika sp+. Najlepsze rezultaty uzyskano w przypadku energii poziomu LUMO, energii orbitalu wolnej pary elektronowej i ładunku NBO na nitreniowym atomie azotu. Analizy tych parametrów wykazały, że wartość stałej sp+ jest silnie uzależniona od gęstości ładunku na nitreniowym atomie azotu. Na podstawie obliczeń NBO stwierdzono, że gęstość elektronowa na atomach C–2 i C–6 jest mniejsza niż w przypadku C–3 i C–5. Przedstawione powyżej fakty są zgodne z teorią rezonansu.

Słowa kluczowe: efekt podstawnikowy, reaktywność, mutageniczność, analiza populacyjna, aromatyczność

M. Przybyłek                                                                                                                                      str. 230

Wpływ pierwiastków śladowych na zawartość związków polifenolowych w Sambucus nigra

THE EFFECT OF TRACE ELEMENTS ON POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN SAMBUCUS NIGRA

Sambucus nigra L. (elder) is a commonly used medicinal plant. Decoctions from its flowers are applied in colds in order to stimulate sweat receptors and increase secretion of mucus within bronchi. The fruit of elder, as well as juice made from it, is used as a mild laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic and analgesic agent. Due to wide medicinal application of inflorescences, fruits and leaves of elderberry, research has been undertaken to determine the mutual connections of selected elements with the total of polyphenolic compounds (including the total of flavonoids and the total of phenolic acids) in the aforementioned materials.

Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient showed that in the investigated plant materials (inflorescences, leaves and fruit) the total of flavonoids was linearly correlated with aluminium, barium, calcium, magnesium and iron, whereas the total of phenolic acids was correlated with aluminium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and lead. The data clustering analysis demonstrated that the total of polyphenols and the total of phenolic acids made direct and least distant connections with manganese, while the total of flavonoids made them with magnesium, and only then with other elements.

Key words: Sambucus nigra, polyphenolic compounds, trace elements, Spearman’s rank correlation

M. Szymański, E. Witkowska–Banaszczak, A. Szymański                                                                    str. 237

 Technologie w produkcji energii odnawialnej a zrównoważona polityka energetyczna

TECHNOLOGIES IN RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE POLICY FOR ENERGY

Main goal of this paper is an effort to summarize the basic principles of policy for energy in contects of execution in sustainable development by a new technology in renewable energy production. This elaborate contains following subjects: development of sustainable policy for energy and significance of renewable energy with proposed its production technology for energy policy based o sustainable development. In article the following methods have been used: descriptive and comparative. The anticipated approach enables to identify achievements and weak sides in executed policy for energy.

Key words: policy for energy, sustainable development, technology

J. Czerna–Grygiel                                                                                                                               str. 244


Prowdrożeniowe badania efektywności rozdrabniacza ziaren zbóż

PRO IMPLEMENTATION EFFICIENCY RESEARCH OF GRAINS CORN GRINDERS

At work shows the results of pro implementation multi holes, cylindrical holes seven disc chipper in the vertical action, with side load–as starting design.

Shows the results of studies pro implementations, innovative five disc chipper in landscape mode with trapezials and rectangular ones for speed only two discs No: 2 and 4, with the original bilateral channels.

Key words: pro implementation modernization of grain grinders, rectangular, trapezoidal holes in shields with choosing separation a bilateral channel

J. Sadkiewicz                                                                                                                                     str. 250

Zastosowanie oprogramowania EPI Suite w ochronie środowiska i naukach pokrewnych

APPLICATION OF EPI SUITE IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ALLIED SCIENCES

In this work the application of free of charge software EPI Suite in environmental protection and allied sciences was presented. This program contains the database with physical, chemical database of experimental data like: melting and boiling point, octanol – water partition coefficient, water solubility, vapour pressure, Henry’s law constant and others with the adequate source of the information: literature references. EPI Suite includes several programs for various properties of compounds estimation and modeling the chemical fate in various compartments.

Key words: environmental protection, EPI Suite, physical – chemical properties, chemical fate in the environment

Ł. Dąbrowski                                                                                                                                     str. 256

 

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