EiT 3_2014


Wpływ metali ciężkich w glebie na zawartość glukozynolanów w nasionach rzepaku jarego

THE VERIFICATION OF POST-ACCIDENT REPAIR, AS THE ELEMENT OF SUPPORTING DECISION-MAKING EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL ON THE CONTENT OF GLUCOSINOLATES IN SPRING RAPESEED

Glucosinolates are important secondary metabolites of rapeseed. The compounds defend from pathogens and pests, affect the vigour and regeneration capacity of the plants and they are auxin precursors. Documented data describing the effect of a high content of heavy metals in soil on the content of glucosinolates in spring rapeseed are missing. With that in mind, there has been performed a pot experiment which facilitated defining the effect of high contents of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on their content. The experiment was set up in the vegetation hall of the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, in completely randomised design, in four reps, in the soil with the texture of sandy loam. The NPK and Mg fertilisation was applied pre–sowing in March together with the rates of heavy metals; 300 and 600 mg Zn×kg–1 of soil, 80 and 160 mg Cu×kg–1 of soil, 400 and 1600 mg Pb×kg–1 of soil as well as 2 and 6 mg Cd×kg–1 of soil. The content of glucosinolates in seeds was determined using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The present experiment showed the effect of the metals and their rates on the content of glucosinolates in spring rapeseed since significantly highest content of total glucosinolates was noted in the seeds of the plants growing in pots, to which 300 mg Zn×kg–1 of soil was applied. The research results show that the spring rape plant, despite not being a hyperaccumulator of heavy metals, can be used in soil phytoremediation in the areas polluted with trace elements. An elevated content of glucosinolates in seeds is determined by their method of use; as a product for the production of technical oil or biofuel. The present research has been co–financed from the Kujawy and Pomorze Province budget funds as part of the Regional Research and Implementation Fund; agreement no IG.I.3020–UDOT–765/2007. Key words: glucosinolates, spring rape plant, heavy metals

P. M. Szulc, M. Kobierski, M. Piekarczyk, K. Kondratowicz–Maciejewska str. 87

Inaktywacja enterokoków w gnojowicy poddanej składowaniu w różnych warunkach termicznych

INACTIVATION OF ENTEROCOCCI IN SLURRY SUBJECTED TO STORAGE UNDER DIFFERENT THERMAL CONDITIONS

Solid and liquid animal manure, often used as fertilizer, can be a source of dangerous pathogens of intestinal origin. In order to minimize the risk of environmental contamination associated with the introduction the organic fertilizers into the soil, they are subjected to different methods of hygenization. Their effectiveness varies widely and depends on many factors, resulting both, from biomass properties or environmental agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of storage of pig slurry on bacteria of the genus Enterococcus spp. Their suspension was introduced into the tank with the fertilizer inside bacteriological plexiglass carriers type Filter–Sandwich. Then, after removing the carriers from the slurry, the number of tested microorganisms was estimated. Statistical analyzes of the results showed, that in the slurry stored in the winter, theoretical survival of enterococci was very long and amounted to more than 200 days. In the summer time bacteria theoretically survived only about 100 days. The differences between these values and the daily rate of elimination were statistically significant . The study showed that storage has limited opportunities for hygenization of slurry and is too dependent on variable environmental conditions . Key words: slurry, enterococci, hygienization, storage, temperature

J. Bauza–Kaszewska, Z. Paluszak, H. Olszewska str. 93

Wykorzystanie spektrometrii fluorescencji rentgenowskiej (XRF) do oznaczania fluoru w formie fluorku wapnia

THE APPLICATION OF X–RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY (XRF) TO FLUORINE DETERMINATION IN THE FORM OF CALCIUM FLUORIDE

There are over than dozen analytical methods of fluorine determination in solid samples. However, they are only dedicated to determinate fluorine in the form of its anions therefore it is necessary to obtain them by time–consuming and labour–consuming methods of samples preparation. For this reason, the indirect method of fluorine determination with the use of X–ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has been devised. This method is the modification of procedure according to the Polish Standard PN–70 H–04123 [11] that deals with a fluorine determination in fluorite. The final determination is carried out with the use of XRF spectrometry or its type– total reflection X–ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Owning to this, the proposed modifications lead to a higher accuracy and precision of results in comparison with the standard’s procedure. The new analytical procedure enables to simplify considerably this procedure according to the standard because a few sample preparation steps were removed. The new method is a quick, easy and relatively low–cost procedure for solid samples determination consisting of fluorine in the form of insoluble in water inorganic salts. The applications of this method are found not only in a chemical, metallurgical, ceramic and glassware industry, but also it is essential for introducing utilisation methods of waste that contains fluorine in the form of insoluble in water inorganic salts. Key words: XRF spectrometry, TXRF spectrometry, fluorine, fluxes, fluorspar Z. Kowalkiewicz, W. Urbaniak str. 98

Dyskryminacja ołowiu w roślinach przez wapń i magnez

DISCRIMINATION OF LEAD IN PLANTS BY CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM

Analyzing the presence of lead, calcium and magnesium in a group of selected plant species one cannot disregard the issue of potential interactions in the plant between these elements. The process of accumulation of these elements in different morphological parts of the plants may result in the discrimination of some of them at the expense of the presence of the others. As the antagonist reactions for Pb and Pb–Ca–Mg are widely discussed in the literature, therefore, there has been taken an attempt to analyze the changes in ratio of Pb/Pb and Ca/Mg in morphological parts of 60 tested plant species in relation to varying amounts of Ca and Mg in the soil. The study confirmed the discrimination of lead in plants, the level of which is characteristic for a given species, as a result of the presence of Ca and Mg in the soil. The lead content in plants was determined with the use of Pye Unicam SP9 spectrophotometer to an accuracy of 0.01 µg/g. Discrimination of lead in roots of some plant species by way of high levels of calcium in the soil takes place in the range of 6–8 thousand µg/g. When the calcium content is in the range of 6–8 thousand µg/g in the soil lead ions are discriminated against in stems, and when the calcium concentration is in the range of 10–24 thousand µg/g lead ions are discriminated against in flowers of the tested plant species. Discriminatory properties of lead ions occur when the magnesium content in the soil is 2–3.5 thousand µg/g; in turn, discrimination of lead ions in stems of the selected plant species occurred when the magnesium content was 2–4 thousand µg/g in the soil. Discriminations of lead ions due to the presence of magnesium of 5–8 thousand µg/g referred to flowers of all the tested plants, while antagonistic reactions of Pb –Mg in leaves of some plants, occurred at the level of magnesium in the soil of 4–8 thousand µg/g. Detailed results of the analysis for each of the 60 species of plants confirm the presence of lead discrimination processes with regard to large quantities of Ca Mg in the soil. Key words: lead, calcium, magnesium, antagonism, discrimination

R. Musielińska, J. Kowol, J. Kwapuliński, R. Rochel, U. Oleś str. 106

Turystyka wiejska jako forma spędzania czasu wolnego mieszkańców wschodniej Ukrainy – przykład obwodu sumskiego

RURAL TOURISM AS LEISURE ACTIVITIES RESIDENTS OF EASTERN UKRAINE – EXAMPLE OF THE SUMY REGION

The article presents the results of research on rural tourism as a form of leisure activity among the residents of the Sumy region. Research using survey technique, carried out in June 2013 on a sample of 228 residents of Sumy region. In the paper was made characteristic of accommodation infrastructure of the region, as well as tourist traffic on its territory. Research allowed to present associations of respondents with the term „rural tourism” and their experiences with the rest in rural areas. It also discusses the preferences of the respondents associated with recreation in rural areas – these considerations was extended to the analysis of the determinants of these preferences, which were age and place of residence of the respondents. Also presented the preferences of the respondents associated with recreation in rural areas – these considerations was extended to the analysis of the determinants of these preferences, which were age and place of residence of the respondents. Further shown respondents’ opinions about the attractiveness of selected elements of rural tourism. Key words: rural tourism, green tourism, tourists’ preferences, Ukraine, Sumy region

A. Balińska, A. Sieczko, O. Slavkova, J. Zawadka str. 111

Oferta agroturystyczna powiatu bydgoskiego

OFFER AGRITOURISM IN THE DISTRICT OF BYDGOSZCZ

The study revealed that in the district of Bydgoszcz are 28 agritourism farms. The offer does not show a large variation in terms of municipal level. Among the most frequently presented services were grill (92.8%), pitch a tent on the property the farm owner (85.7%) and the purchase of food products directly in the yard (64.2%). Equally often were pointed fishing (57.1%), renting a bike (50%) and serving homemade meals (50%). Most adopted categories of tourists are nature lovers (53.5%), people who like sports activities (50%) and social groups (46.5%). For such a profile guests mainly prepared rooms for 2 and 3 persons in which the average cost for the stay is about 52 zł. 60.7% are unaffiliated service providers, and 85.7% farms do not show any action to better expose their product on the web portal and encourage potential visitors to choose their offer. Key words: accommodation base, guest room, agritourism product

J. Cichowska str.119

Możliwości finansowania rozwoju turystyki wiejskiej w Polsce

FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN POLAND

The article tells about the sources of financing affecting to the development of rural tourism in Poland, with particular emphasis on European funds. It presents types of investment that can be realized out in the area of rural tourism and identifies the selected sources of investment in tourism infrastructure and human resources development. The autohr shows the effect of use EU founds in the period 2007–2013, the main funding areas implemented under the Regional Operational Programmes, the European Fund Polish Rural Development and LGD “Partnerstwo Izerskie” and NGOs in Lower Silesia. Key words: tourist investments, sources of funding, assistance programs

R. Przeorek str. 129

Jak wykorzystać dziedzictwo kulturowe w aktywizacji turystycznej obszarów wiejskich? Przykłady projektów zrealizowanych przez Lokalne Grupy Działania w województwie małopolskim

HOW TO UTLISE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE ACTIVISATION OF TOURISM IN RURAL AREAS? EXAMPLES OF PROJECTS REALISED BY LOCAL ACTION GROUPS IN LESSER POLAND VOIVODESHIP

The characteristic feature of rural areas in Poland is the diversity and wealth of cultural heritage comprising such components as: architectural monuments, folk traditions, traditional cuisine and handicraft and folklore. The cultural content can constitute a potential tourism development factor in a given area. The objective of this article is to delineate the current directions of activities in the utilisation of cultural heritage to develop tourism offer in urban and rural municipalities belonging to Local Action Groups in Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The realised projects aim for appropriate development, management, and promotion of cultural heritage, which can become a strategy of differentiation. The objective of these activities lies in the creation and delivery of comprehensive tourism products and services to the market adjusted to the diverse needs and expectations of tourists. Four Local Action Groups are especially active in this field: Dolina Karpia (Carp Valley), Na Śliwkowym Szlaku (Plum Trail), Partnerstwo na Jurze (Jura Partnership) and Podbabiogórze (Babia Góra Foothills). Key words: cultural heritage, strategy of differentiation, tourism, Local Action Group, rural areas

Ł. Matoga, A. Pawłowska, E. Stach str. 140

Informacja o 57. Zjeździe Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego oraz Stowarzyszenia Inżynierów i Techników Przemysłu Chemicznego str. 150

 

 

 

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