EiT 4_2014


Jakość mikrobiologiczna powietrza w pomieszczeniach wyższej uczelni

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR IN ACADEMIC BUILDINGS

The increased of interest in microbial air quality, observed in recent years, is undoubtedly due to the deterioration of the conditions inside commercial buildings and residential buildings. It was found that people spend indoors 80–90% of their lifetime. For this reason, issue of indoor air quality is becoming increasingly important, especially in public buildings. The aim of the study was to assess a microbial contamination of selected rooms air in the buildings belonging to the L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun. Research of air microbiological quality were conducted in selected rooms of buildings belonging to the L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, located in the buildings complex of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz at M. Sklodowska–Curie 9 St. (building I) and in the buildings complex at Jagiellońska 13–15 St. (building II). The assessment of air microbiological purity was conducted with Koch’s sedimentation method, using the exposure time of 20 min. The air temperature and relative humidity were measured during the sedimentation. Microbiological tests included determination of the total number of bacteria and fungi, number of mannitol–positive (including Staphylococcus aureus) and mannitol–negative staphylococci, Gram–negative rods and Actinomycetes expressed in c.f.u.×m–3 of air. The air temperature in the building I stood at 19.8°C – 23.1°C with relative humidity of 40.6% – 49.7%, and in the building II ranged between 20.1°C – 22, 4°C with humidity 41.9% – 50.2%. The total number of bacteria in both buildings ranged between 102 – 103 cfu×m–3, and the numer of fungi was on the level of 101 – 102 c.f.u.×m–3. The number of Actinomycetes in the air of rooms, in which these organisms were found, also was within 101 – 102 c.f.u.×m–3. In the tested air the presence of staphylococci, including S. aureus was demonstrated, and in the toilets the lactose–positive and lactose–negative rods were also found. The level of air microbial pollution in selected rooms of buildings belonging to the L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz can be differently evaluated depending on the adopted recommendations, but it did not exceed the value at which we can talk about occupational exposure. The presence of mannitol–positive staphylococci, including S. aureus, indicates the presence of the pathogenic microflora in tested air, therefore, threrefore the air quality can only be considered as satisfactory. Key words: indor air quality, bioaerosols, airborne microorganisms, academic buildings

K. Skowron, A. Kaczmarek, A. Budzyńska, E. Gospodarek str. 155

Reakcja wybranych hydrolaz na zanieczyszczenie gleby kadmem

RESPONSE OF HYDROLASES IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH CADMIUM

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of soil contamination with cadmium on the activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and urease. The experiment was performed in the laboratory conditions with 3 replications. Sandy loam contaminated by aqueous solution of CdCl2•2,5H2O in an amount corresponding to: 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg Cd2+ kg–1 DM soil. The soil material was incubated at 25 °C, keeping the 50% of the maximum water capacity. The activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and urease was marked in 15th and 90th day of experiment. Cadmium was a strong inhibitor of the enzymes activity. The range of cadmium inhibitory effects on enzymes was as follows: urease > acid phosphatase > alkaline phosphatase. Urease was the most sensitive of the marked enzymes in soil contaminated with increasing doses of cadmium. Tested metal caused permanent changes in soil, not giving a chance to achieve a balance. Forecasts are more optimistic in assessing the state of the soil only through the prism of alkaline phosphatase (RL= 0,107). Key words: cadmium, soil, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, urease

R. Strachel, J. Wyszkowska, M. Zaborowska str. 165

Możliwości wykorzystania nieczynnych linii kolejowych do rozwoju turystyki rowerowej w województwie warmińsko–mazurskim

OPPORTUNITIES TO USE DISUSED RAILWAY TRACKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLING TOURISM IN THE PROVINCE OF WARMIA AND MAZURY The Province of Warmia and Mazury possesses excellent conditions for the pursuit of cycling tourism. One possible solution for creating new bicycle trails is to use the disused railway tracks. Their adaptation to the new function will necessitate such works as the reinforcement of banks, clearing brambles, etc. When properly adapted, former railway tracks can be successfully used for the development of tourism. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the potential adaptability of disused railway tracks for development of the tourism industry in the Province of Warmia and Mazury. A more detailed objective has been to perform a case study on a former railway link between Lidzbark Warmiński and Jarzeń. The article presents a concept of how this railway line could be converted into a bicycle trail. Based on the investigations and analyses performed, guidelines have been put forth to support design of such tourist trails. The underlying assumption was to design resting sites along the trail, to link to trail with motor roads, and to include elements of street architecture into the bicycle route. Because the landscape values along the analyzed railway track are of modest quality, the authors have decided that it should be made more attractive by adding educational and recreational facilities. The overriding motive was to draw attention to the numerous marshes and wetlands along the trail, and to some rare species of birds dwelling there. Key words: concept design, tourist facilities, design guidelines, railway

M. Antolak, E. Krawiecka str. 172

Bioróżnorodność grzybów z rodzaju Fusarium izolowanych ze zbóż ozimych na terenie Małopolski

BIODIVERSITY OF FUNGI BELONGING TO THE GENUS FUSARIUM ISOLATED FROM WINTER CEREALS IN LESSER POLAND

The study was performed to evaluate the biodiversity of fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium contaminating winter cereals in the Lesser Poland. Systematic position of fungi was determined and the relationship between the contaminated cereal species and the colonization frequency of Fusarium spp. was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of culture conditions in vitro (temperature, medium) on the growth of the collected strains was determined. Ears of winter cereals were collected from fields located in the Lesser Poland in 2011 and 2012. 257 strains belonging to the genus Fusarium were isolated and F. graminearum was the dominant species. It was found that all collected cereals species were contaminated by Fusarium spp. to a similar degree. Temperature of 24°C and both media, i.e. wort agar and Potato Dextrose Agar are the best for in vitro cultivation of Fusarium spp. Key words: Fusarium spp., cereals, contamination, mycological media, biodiversity

K. Wolny–Koładka str. 180

Próba oceny jakości deserów dla dzieci przechowywanych w warunkach zamrażalniczych

THE ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF DESSERTS FOR CHILDREN, HELD IN FROZEN STORAGE CONDITIONS

The aim of the study was to obtain a frozen dairy desserts. For this purpose the cream cheese with strawberry flavor and strawberry flavored yogurt were subjected to freezing and storage for 30 days at different temperature conditions. Frozen desserts were subjected to an organoleptic and melting behavior was measured according to the methodology used in the study of ice cream. The products differed in chemical composition, which had an impact on their organoleptic assessment and melting behavior. Further research is planned to obtain frozen yogurt, which will have appropriate organoleptic characteristics after freezing and storage. Key words: ice cream, frozen yogurt, cream cheese, organoleptic assessment, melting

A. Palka, M. Ruszkowska str. 188

Intoksykacja Pb wybranych roślin z zasięgu oddziaływania Huty Częstochowa Pb

INTOXICATION OF SELECTED PLANTS IN THE RANGE OF INFLUENCE OF THE CZESTOCHOWA STEELWORKS

Soil contamination, especially heavy metal compounds, can significantly affect the increase in pollution of the plant. Of hazard occurrence of various elements in the soil determines the type of industrial emissions. The soil of the industrialized nations, especially in the steel mills, are in varying degrees of polluted compounds of heavy metals, including lead compounds. The subject of the research on the accumulation of Pb were morphological parts: the root, stem segments with a length of 10 cm, the leaf, the flower of 60 species of medicinal plants and the soil from a by–root layer. Directly bioavailable forms (exchangeable and adsorbed form) as well as indirectly bioavailable ones of Pb (a form of carbonates and organic compounds) was established in according to Rudd’s method. The lead content in the soil and in plants was determined with the use of Pye Unicam SP9 spectrophotometer to an accuracy of 0.01 µg/g. In assessing the ability of accumulation the important thing is the level of various elements potentially involved in the competition for the receptor, which is the root of the plant. The average metal contents in the exchangeable and adsorbed form in the soil were respectively (µg/g) Zn 2.47 and 54.43; CR 8,53 and 3.27; Cd of 0.17 and 0.27; Mn of 1.77 and 8.35 ; Cu 22.90 and 8.61; Pb 1.79 and 5.32 ; Ni 0.65 and 0.57 ; Fe 5.10 and 15.18. In the form of carbonates and organic compounds Pb occurred in the amount of 7.30 µg/g and 4.76 µg/g. The contents of Pb corresponding to the 10 percentile can be used in other studies as a reference. Large values corresponding to the 10 percentile were particularly noted (in µg/g) in the root of Papaver rhoeas – 9.50 and Verbascum nigrum – 6.32; in the leaves of: Senecio vernalis – 4.05 , Verbascum densiflorum – 3.84, Plantago major – 3.68. Medicinal plants can be, due to their high selective ability of accumulation, an additional source of lead in the human body, depending on the treatment procedure. Key words: intoxication, lead, medicinal, plants, steelwork, Czestochowa

R. Musielińska, J. Kwapuliński, J. Kowol str.193

Analiza kosztów naprawy powypadkowej pojazdu z wykorzystaniem modułu kalkulacyjnego G2G EurotaxGlass’s COST ANALYSIS OF POST–ACCIDENT REPAIR OF THE VEHICLE WITH EXPLOITING THE CALCULATING G2G EUROTAXGLASS’S MODULE

In the article a problem of the cost analysis was taken post–accident of vehicle at supporting specialize with computer tools of the expert, of which performing the reliable calculation of post–accident repair of the vehicle is a task. Contemporary vehicles are characterized by a complicated structure what requires the technological new approach in case of the reparation for damaging the existing vehicle in road traffic accidents. This new approach is regarding also performing the precise calculation of post–accident repair including the technology recommended by the producer given cars make. Then repair will only restore the safety for vehicle. Performing the reliable calculation constitutes repairs, so relevant problem which the solution enables currently exclusively an application specialize of computer tools for the precise assessment of costs of repair of the vehicle. Correct estimating costs of repair of the vehicle compared with his value is also facilitating the decision making about pointing the vehicle disposable and the recycling what the undoubted influence has for the environmental protection, by eliminating from the use of long–term vehicles which are less ecological than new vehicles.In the study a practical application of the calculating G2G module was also included for estimating costs of post–accident repair in the analysed case study of the examined object – of Peugeot passenger cars from the reported communications damagein one of an insurance companies. Key words: cost analysis of post–accident repair, computer methods in post–accident engineering, technology of post–accident repair

P. Aleksandrowicz str. 200

Estetyzacja wsi –problemy zagospodarowania terenów o charakterze turystycznym i rekreacyjnym

AESTHETICS OF THE VILLAGE – PROBLEMS OF LAND MANAGEMENT IN A CONTEXT OF TOURISM AND RECREATION

The rapid development of non–agricultural functions, including tourism and recreation, caused changes in the structure of the village, in recent years. This applies in particular regions which are attractive by natural and cultural potential. Increased number of accommodation facilities and summer houses, as well as non–agricultural activities funding, decided to change the idyllic nature of village. Formerly the village was associated primarily with the agricultural production and characteristics–based traditions and regional heritage. The European and national programs play a huge role in the renewal of rural areas. Creating the image of the new village does not always coincides, however, with the adjustment of its structure and facilities to local conditions. Aesthetics of the new places leaves much to be desired. The paper examines issues relating to the development and aesthetics of rural space. The role of green spaces in the aesthetisation was indicated. The examples and guidelines towards the use of public and private resources for the development of tourism and recreation in the countryside were also prepared. Key words: aesthetic values, rural landscape, tourism, recreation, greenery

A. Jaszczak, Ż. Banaszek  str. 207

 

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