EiT 5_2014


Zdarzenia o znamionach poważnej awarii w transporcie materiałów niebezpiecznych na terenie Polski

MAJOR HAZARDS AND SIMILAR EVENTS IN DANGEROUS MATERIALS TRANSPORT IN POLAND

A scale of potential environmental hazards in Poland caused by major hazards and similar events arising from dangerous materials transport is presented taking into consideration data from Chief Inspectorate of Environmen¬tal Protection. In the period of 2008–2010 and 2012, the number of accidents in transport varied and was the high¬est in Mazovian (21) and Pomeranian (15) Voivodeship. Accident density in transport per 1000 km2 was the highest in Silesian and Pomeranian Voivodeship probably due to high level of this area urbanization and the presence of large chemical plants. Variety of accidents occurrence depended also on density of routes, railways and pipelines transferring hydrocarbons. Events dominating in pipeline transport resulted from theft attempts of fuel from pipe¬lines transferring final petroleum products and from damages of gas transferring pipelines due to earthworks. Key words: dangerous materials, transportation, environmental hazards, road case, major hazard analysis A. Żarczyński str. 219

Obiekty małej architektury towarzyszące ścieżkom rowerowym prowadzonym na nieczynnych liniach kolejowych

STREET ARCHITECTURE ALONG BICYCLE TRAILS RUNNING ON DISUSED RAILWAY TRACKS

The authors discuss the question of creating bicycle trails on disused railway tracks in Poland and worldwide. Good examples have been presented, and current trends in designing such objects are analyzed. A former railway link between Lidzbark Warmiński and jarzeń was taken as an example to present a universal set of street architec¬ture elements which can accompany such cycling routes. The paper contains a presentation of such elements as seats, benches, information boards, signs and bicycle stands. Basic technical parameters were given, including dimensions and materials. The main materials suggested are railway sleepers, railway tracks and corten steel. The designed elements are to illustrate how to think outside the box when creating such bicycle paths. The inspira¬tion was drawn from the history of the railway line, the materials employed are associated with railways and have simple forms that do not interfere with the landscape. Apart from railway inspirations, the authors also relied on the regional landscape and added a few abstract elements to the designed space. Key words: street architecture, railway, tourism M. Antolak, E. Krawiecka str. 228

Charakterystyka reologiczna kosmetyków na bazie kolagenu

RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLAGEN–BASED COSMETICS

Products with high viscosity are commonly used by us in everyday life. Their analysis for the researcher, how¬ever, is often difficult. There are still needed another cognitive tools to products with high viscosity to describe more precisely. This is even more important in commercial applications where time analysis and its cost are criti¬cal parameters, often deciding to introduce products to the market. Collagen is the most common protein in the human body. It is derived from mammals and widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this paper an extensive rheological characteristics of gel–based cosmetics collagen was conducted. It was found that they have the non–newtonian and pseudoplastic character, with clearly marked thixotropy and yield stress. Key words: collagen, viscosity, cosmetics, rheology, gel P. Szyczewski, M. Frankowski, J. Siepak, T. Szyczewsk, P. Piotrowski str. 236

Analiza potencjału geotermii płytkiej w Wielkopolsce w oparciu o dostępne dane źródłowe

THE ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF THE SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE WIELKOPOLSKA REGION ON THE BASIS OF AVAILABLE DATA

Geothermal energy belongs to renewable energy sources. The promotion and the increase of the application of geothermal energy allow to comply with the requirements of European Union policy as well as lower the pressure on the natural environment. The paper presents problems associated with geothermal power and possibilities of its using in an installation equipped with a heat pump. Key words: geothermal energy, renewable energy, heat pump K. Świtalska, Z. Foltynowicz, L. Wachowski str. 242

Przydatność testów enzymatycznych do oceny wpływu nawożenia naturalno–mineralnego na aktywność biologiczną gleby

USEFULNESS OF ENZYMATIC TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL–MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON SOIL BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

Soil fertilization is the main agrotechnical practice in the agriculture intensification process. If it is applied in different forms and doses, it can affects soil properties, especially its biological activity. The effect of fertilization on soil enzymes depends on the kind of enzyme, soil type, fertilizer form, and its application time. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of long–term fertilization on soil enzymatic activity (b–glucosidase, urease, acid phosphatase, proteases, amylases) and some chemical properties, as well as to select the most suitable enzymes to evaluate the influence of differentiated fertilization on soil biological activity. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizon from natural (farmyard manure – FYM), mineral (nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium – NPK, NPK + Ca) and natural–mineral fertilization (straw + mineral N, FYM +NPK, FYM + NPK + Ca) combinations under red clover, winter wheat and spring rape cultivated 53, 54, 55 years after foundation of the experiment. Both differentiated fertilization and cultivated plans have influenced significantly most of studied properties. Soil amylases and pro¬teases activity was not influenced by the cultivated plants, while b–glucosidase and acid phosphatase activities were the highest under spring rape. The highest total N and organic C content as well as enzymatic activity was noted in soil treated with farmyard manure, straw (with mineral N fertilization) or both these fertilizers applied together with mineral fertilization, as compared with the soil samples treated with mineral fertilization only. Prote¬ases activity was among the best indicators reflecting the influence of differentiated fertilization on soil biological activity, while amylases were not influenced by differentiated fertilization in all investigated years. Key words: soil biological activity, enzymatic tests, soil mineral fertilization, farmyard manure, straw M. Rybacki, M. Polkowska, A. Piotrowska–Długosz str. 248

Zasolenie i agresywność wód kopalnianych z odkrywek węgla brunatnego

SALINITY AND AGGRESSIVENESS OF MINE WATERS FROM BROWN COAL OPEN–PIT MINES

The aims of studies were evaluation of the mine waters salinity and aggressiveness and its impact on river wa¬ters. In the paper results of studies carried out in period IV–X of the year 2013 on mine waters from brown coal open–pit mines Tomisławice and Drzewce were presented. Level of salinity was evaluated using results of conduc¬tivity and sum of chloride and sulphates concentrations and obtained results were compared with data for rivers under the mine waters pressure. Additionally, the level of mine waters aggressiveness on concrete was estimated using physico–chemical data and water velocity. Obtained results showed, that salinity of mine waters was simi¬lar to salinity of Noteć River and Grójecki Channel waters. Significantly lower concentrations of sulphates in river waters below Tomisławice mine discharge was found in case of Noteć River and it was related to the contribution of mine waters in river discharge and process of sedimentation. The impact of mine waters on increase of fluoride in river waters was not observed. According to physico–chemical parameters the studied mine waters were not corrosive for concrete. The lowest level of aggressiveness (la1) in each site was caused only by water flow. Key words: mine waters, water salinity, sulphates, water aggressiveness, Tomisławice R. Staniszewski, T. Sobczyński str.256

Cechy mierzalne uklei (Alburnus alburnus L.) z dolnego biegu rzeki Wisły

MEASURABLE TRAITS OF BLEAK (ALBURNUS ALBURNUS L.) FROM THE LOWER REACHES OF VISTULA

Bleaks for research were caught in the river Vistula at the beginning of June 2012 within the city of Toruń. A total of 107 bleak were caught, including 66 females and 41 males. 16 linear measurements were conducted on each one with an accuracy of 0.1 mm, later they were shown in percentage of body length. Both male and female bleak from the lower reaches of Vistula were characterised with a very similar body. Males in comparison to fe¬males had a higher dorsal fin and longer pectoral fins, however in practice those differences are difficult to notice. Bleaks from the lower reaches of Vistula are not much different from bleaks living in middle reaches of this river or other rivers. Key words: bleak, morphometry, measurable traits, Vistula River J. Dąbrowski, G. Gackowski str. 263

Charakterystyka użytkowa przenośników śrubowych w warunkach biogazowni rolniczej

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF SCREW CONVEYOR IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

Analyzed the performance of mass screw feeders. Examined by operating efficiency of the pump material den¬sity, angle of the tray to the plane and angular speed. Made an evaluation of the performance of the entire system feeders. Used structural model (fig. 1) commonly used in biogas plants. Key words: agricultural biogas plant, feeder, storage performance P. Wawer str. 267

Forschung über den Einfluss der Getreidefeuchtigkeit auf die Ungleichmässigkeit der Brecherarbeit

BADANIE WPŁYWU WILGOTNOŚCI ZIARNA NA NIERÓWNOŚCI PRACY ROZDRABNIACZA

W pracy zaprezentowano model matematyczny z uwzględnieniem konstrukcji maszyny rozdrabniającej, cech i właściwości materiałów ziarnistych oraz ich wpływu na nierównomierność procesu rozdrabniania. Słowa kluczowe: biomasa, rozdrabniacz A. Tomporowski, J. B. Flizikowski, K. Opielak, R. Petrich str. 271

Charakterystyka procesu sorpcji wody przez produkty wysokobiałkowe na przykładzie mąk sojowych

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WATER SORPTION PROPERTIES IN PRODUCTS OF HIGH CONTENT ON PROTEIN FOR EXAMPLE OF SOY FLOUR

The aim of the study was to evaluate the sorption process on the example of high protein soy flour. Evaluation assessed the soy flour (I) obtained as a result of the fragmentation of whole soybeans and defatted soy flour (II). The products examined characteristics of the sorption process was carried out using a static through the appointment of sorption isotherms of water vapor. The scope of the research included a water activity of 0.07 to 0.93 (20 ± 1°C). The equilibration time was 45 days. On the basis of the initial product weight and water content changes the equilibrium water content was calculated and plotted against water vapor sorption isotherm. For the mathematical interpretation of the course of water vapor adsorption isotherms using the BET equation in the range of water activity 0.07 ≤ aw ≤ 0.33, Equations have been characterized on the basis of the coefficient of deter¬mination (R2), fit standard error (FitStdErr) defined on a Jandel–Table Curve 2D v 5.01. Calculated from equations further calculated monolayer capacity sorption and surface area Key words: soy flour, sorption isotherm, the monolayer capacity, specific surface sorption M. Ruszkowska str. 277

Aktywność fosfataz i zawartość fosforu w glebach leśnych rdzawych podlegające oddziaływaniu Zakładów Azotowych ANWIL S.A.

ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHATASES AND THE CONTENT OF PHOSPHORUS IN FOREST BRUNIC ARENOSOLS EXPOSED TO THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN WORKS ANWIL S.A.

The paper demonstrates the results of research of the many–year evaluation of nitrogen emissions on the activ¬ity of alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as the content of phosphorus available to plants in the soil located in the vicinity of Nitrogen Works ANWIL S.A. The research covered three soil profiles exposed to the effect of the emit¬ter as well as the profile sampled from the Tuchola Forest (as the control profile). The soil reaction was acid and slightly acid (pHH2O 5.3–6.6, pHKCl 4.3–5.3). There was found the lowest content of carbon of organic(0.31–10.3 g∙kg–1) compounds and available phosphorus (6.08–25.39 mg∙kg–1) in the profile located in the closest vicinity of the Nitrogen Works (about 0.8 km). The deeper down the soil profile, the lower the content of those nutrients. The activity of the phosphomonoesterases under study varied depending on the distance from the emitter. Nitrogen emissions resulted in the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase, while acid phosphatase got activated, which was connected with the soil reaction. There were demonstrated strict relationships between the parameters and the activity of selected enzymes, pointing to their application potential as the parameters facilitating the monitoring of changes which occur in soil. Key words: phosphorus, mobility index, phosphatase, nitrogen, soil J. Lemanowicz str. 281

Pojemność silnika samochodu osobowego i jej wpływ na poziom emisji

CO2 PASSENGER CAR ENGINE CAPACITY AND ITS IMPACT ON CO2 EMISSIONS

The traffic of means of transport in individual branches influences in different ways on the environment. The scale of this phenomenon is the subject of comparisons and references. Road transport, which dominates, has a negative impact on the environment and widely understood surroundings. One of them is the emission of green¬house gases into the atmosphere. The basic comparative parameter and covered by the findings of the EU is level of carbon dioxide emissions, which is the result of combustion of energy fuels expressed in g×km–1. The aim of this analysis is to reveal the relationship between the occurrence of engine capacity and the level of emissions in comparable research facilities. Made the statement, and prepared graphs show a significant correlation in this regard. Results of the analysis suggest the need to reduce capacity of engines. According to this vehicle manufac¬turers should perform the appropriate task. Key words: CO2 emissions, the greenhouse effect, the harmfulness of motorization, ecology, friendly vehicles T. Żurek str. 287

Efektywność technologiczna i energetyczna rozwłókniaczy wirowych do makulatury

ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF PULPERS FOR WASTE PAPER

The purpose of slushing in recovered paper processing is to break down the raw material into individual fibers as much as possible to form a suspension that can at least be pumped. To save energy, the first step with the pulpers is limited to coarse slushing and heavy particle separation. Fine disintegration and coarse screening with the disk screen usually follows. The main advantage of the high consistency pulper with spiral rotor is economy of pulping energy and gentle slushing with low breaking down of contaminants. To avoid excessive energy use, the impeller operating rotational speed as well as the power of the motor should be adequate for good disintegration but have the least possible value. To this effect was applied frequency converter. Specific energy consumption is expressed as kWh/t. The intensity of the slushing, kW/m3, is described by comparing consumed power to the vat filling volume. Key words: waste paper, pulpers, energy efficiency A. Biel–Tyralska, T. Tyralski str. 291

 

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