EiT_5_2015

Liczebność wybranych mikroorganizmów glebowych w okolicach zakładu ArcelorMittal Poland w Krakowie

THE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED SOIL MICROORGANISMS IN THE VICINITY OF ARCELORMITTAL POLAND IN KRAKÓW

This study was performed to evaluate the microbial prevalence in soils within the ArcelorMittal steelworks in Kraków and to verify whether the close proximity to the steelworks affects the number of soil microorganisms in agricultural soils. Research was carried out in four periods: September and December 2010 and in April and June 2011. Six sampling sites were designated within the steelworks and in agricultural fields in its close vicinity. Total number of bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycetes was calculated as well as the number of bacteria taking part in nitrogen transformations: Azotobacter spp. and Rhizobium spp.. The soil pH, moisture and organic matter content were determined. pH of the examined soils was neutral and slightly acidic. The number of the examined microorganisms was characterized by a large seasonal and spatial variation. Great and variable abundance of the studied microbial groups, coupled with numerous occurrence of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) suggest that ArcelorMittal steelworks does not have direct adverse effect on the nearby agricultural areas and on soils in the area of the plant itself.

Key words: soil microorganisms, agricultural areas, industrial areas, Azotobacter, Rhizobium

A. Lenart–Boroń, K. Wolny–Koładka str. 219

 

 

Preferencje młodzieży akademickiej w zakresie

wypoczynku wakacyjnego

STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES FOR HOLIDAY VACATION

The study revealed that the academic community holiday time is spent mainly in the country and the direction of summer travel is mostly coastal. If students participate in foreign destinations, the most common is Europe. Young people appreciate the convenience of choosing the place of accommodation hotel, inn or resort. And although only once a year, they manage to go to rest, mostly they know, exactly where they want to go or what their plans for the future are.

Key words: academic youth, leisure, tourist trips

J. Cichowska str. 227

 

 

Wpływ nawożenia azotem i cynkiem na zawartość magnezu

i manganu w ziarnie pszenżyta jarego

EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND ZINC FERTILIZATION ON THE MAGNESIUM AND MANGANESE CONTENT

IN GRAIN OF SPRING TRITICALE

In 2005–2007 a two–factorial field experiment was carried out established with the randomized split–plot method at the Agricultural Experimental Station Minikowo of the University of Science and Technology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of varied nitrogen rates and foliar application of zinc on the content of magnesium and manganese in grain of spring triticale cv. Kargo. Two levels of nitrogen fertilization were applied (1st factor, n=2): 80 kg N ha–1 (N80) and 120 kg N ha–1 (N120) and three levels of zinc fertilization (2nd factor, n=3): Zn0 (no zinc), Zn1 (0.1 kg ha–1) and Zn2 (0.3 kg ha–1) against the background of constant pre–sowing fertilization with phosphorus and potassium. The study proved that a rate of 120 kg N ha–1 significantly affected a decrease in magnesium content and increase in manganese concentration in spring triticale grain, as compared with a rate of 80 kg N ha–1. Similar directions of changes in contents of the elements under discussion in grain of the studied species were found after foliar application of zinc at a rate of 0.3 kg Zn ha–1 (Zn2), as compared with the treatment fertilized with a rate of 0.1 kg Zn ha–1 (Zn1).

Key words: spring triticale, nitrogen and zinc fertilization, magnesium content, manganese content

W. Kozera, T. Knapowski, B. Barczak, E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny,

W. Mozolewski, M. Świtkowski str. 233

 

 

Kumulacja Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr i Zn w roślinach leczniczych rosnących na terenach semirekreacyjnych

THE ACCUMULATION PB, CD, NI, CR, ZN IN MEDICAL PLANTS GROWING IN RURAL AREAS

An important aspect of phytotherapy is the rate of metals accumulation, i.e.: Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn in medicinal plants. The elements distribution in plants is conditioned phenomenom of discrimination and tolerance on the specified metal, which depends on the plants species and mechanisms influencing its course. Besides phenomenom of distribution of metals is varied anatomically so it is important which plant material is used to production of medicinal preparation. To evaluate the contents of metals in plants it is important the information about their content in individual parts of plants and which bioavailable form in soil is preffered by the plant.

The purpose of research was the evaluation of the accumulation each bioavailable metals forms (exchangeable and adsorbed) in medicinal plants. The plants species have been tested which were presented at simillar habitat rural areas. Rudd’s method was determined Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr. The content of metals in extracts of soil and in morphological parts of plants were determined method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The participation of metals bioavailable form was rated by factors of divisions K1 and K2.

Key words: accumulation, heavy metals, plant, factor of division, phytotherapy

J. Kwapuliński, J. Kowol, G. Librowska, K. Będkowska, P. Brewczyński, K. Kwiecień,

U. Oleśków, M. Swoboda str. 238

 

 

Ocena postaw dzieci w wieku szkolnym w stosunku do wybranych produktów spożywczych

ASSESS THE ATTITUDES PREFERENCES OF SCHOOL – AGE CHILDREN TOWARDS SELECTED

FOOD PRODUCTS

The aim of the poll was to assess consumption preferences of school–age children towards the selected products and meals. The poll was conducted in 2014 among a group of 140 children aged from 9 to 12 attending the Primary School No. 43 in Gdynia. The diagnostic poll method was used in the project. Preferences of the children towards 41 foodstuffs and meals were studied. The degree of acceptance of a specific product was assessed on the basis of a 3–grade scale, and appropriate ranks were assigned to individual replies.

Soft drinks and highly processed products, such as pizza, hamburgers and French fries were classified in the group of products with a high degree of acceptance by children aged 9 to 12. Children willingly consume products with high energy density, which may develop diet–related diseases in the future. It is recommended to introduce educational activities in a family environment and to develop and implement strategies to prevent the incorrect nutritional behaviour in school–age children.

Key words: children, eating habits, the structure of the consumption of food products

A. Platta, K. Żyłka str. 244

 

 

Efektywność odzysku energii w systemach sprężonego powietrza w przemyśle spożywczym

THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

Compressed air is often used in many branches of industry, among others, in the food industry. Contrary to popular belief it is a very expensive medium, whose preparation requires high energy input. This is particularly important in the food industry, where high air cleanliness classes are required, what demands the installation of additional devices. This article attempts to estimate the amount of heat energy, possible to recover from air compressors. The recovered energy can be used in many different ways: as a source of energy for space heating or for heating the hot water for domestic purposes. The consequence of use of heat recovery system allows for the reduction of the energy costs in factories.

Key words: compressed air, energy recovery, compressor, refrigeration dryer

K. Perz, A. Rewolińska str.249

 

 

Zmiany wielkości wycieku rozmrażalniczego wiśni w zależności od warunków przechowywania

CHANGES IN THE SIZE OF THE LEAK THAWING CHERRY DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of time and frozen storage conditions cherry on the size of the leak thawing. In cherries, stored in constant temperature of –5°C, –15°C and –25°C, determined the leakage thawing in cycles of four weeks for twenty weeks of storage.

Analysis of the results showed that the highest rate of change size leak thawing characterized cherries stored at –5°C, and the lowest cherries stored at –25°C.

Key words: frozen fruits, cherry, leak thawing

T. Pukszta, J. Jurzyk str. 253

 

 

Porównanie udziału chronionych i zagrożonych gatunków roślin w kompleksach zbiorowisk roślinnych doliny Noteci i Kanału Bydgoskiego

THE SHARE COMPARISON OF PROTECTED AND THREATENED PLANT SPECIES IN PLANT COMMUNITY COMPLEXES OF NOTEĆ RIVER VALLEY AND BYDGOSZCZ CANAL VALLEY

Within three transects intersecting Noteć and Bydgoszcz Canal valleys encompassing the edges thereof near Ślesin, Nakło upon Noteć and Bielawy occupying in total an area of 25,11 km2 the occurrence of 889 vascular plant taxa were documented. Among them so called “valuable” species, i.e. species under protection and included in national, regional lists and locally rare make 14,52%. There are 13 taxa under strict protection and 21 partially protected.

Betula humilis, Carex atherodes, Ostericum palustre, Sorbus intermedia and Stipa joannis are the most valuable species in the study area included in the Polish red data book. As many as 24 species are on the list of threatened vascular plants of Poland, 60 are threatened within Kujawy–Pomorze region, 61 are threatened in Pomorze and 64 in Wielkopolska. On the list of segetal weeds 33 species are found. The analyzed group comprises 110 locally very rare and rare taxa (12,37% of total flora).”Valuable” species occur the most abundantly within delimitated areas natural to a large degree – in complexes of forest vegetation compatible with their habitat and semi–natural, extensively used – v.c. of xerothermic grasslands and v.c. of grasslands. The size of the compared valley area taken into account has no influence on their species abundance. In a distinctly larger area of Noteć valley 786 taxa were documented, of which 85 (10,81%) are protected and threatened species, wheras in Bydgoszcz Channel valley 751 species were listed, of which 94 (12,52%) are “valuable” species. In the valley of Bydgoszcz Channel there are a lot more “valuable” species despite much earlier and more intensive use. It influences a higher habitat diversity as well as a large number of delimitated areas representing complexes of plant communities with the highest percentage of protected and threatened species – xerothermic glasslands.

Key words: protected and endangered species, river valleys, complexes of plant communities, Noteć, Bydgoszcz Channel

B. Waldon–Rudzionek str. 257

 

 

Właściwości sorpcyjne mleka koziego – ocena porównawcza

THE SORPTION PROPERTIES OF GOATS MILK – COMPARATIVE EVALUATION

The aim of the study was the comparative characteristics of the sorption properties of goat milk powder. The determination of the sorption goat milk powder made by the method of dynamic determination of the kinetics and the rate of water vapor adsorption during the 42 hours of measurement of the kinetics of sorption process of water vapor in an environment having a water activity aw = 0.44; aw = 0.69 and aw = 0.86 and a static method through the designation of water vapor adsorption isotherms. In the experiment determining the water vapor adsorption isotherms, used a wide range of water activity allows to reflect a variety of storage conditions and the product = 0.07 ÷ 0.82.

Key words: sorption isotherms, monolayer capacity, specific surface of sorption, water activity goat milk powder, the BET

M. Ruszkowska str. 269

 

 

Analiza sensoryczna przetworów z mało znanych odmian marchwi

SENSORY ANALYSIS OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF LITTLE–KNOWN VARIETIES OF CARROTS

The aim of this study was sensory analyze of products with colored varieties of carrots as a source of innovation for the domestic processing carrots. In sensory tests conducted in the laboratory for sensory evaluation in the Department of Microbiology and Food Technology at the University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz (UTP) was attended by 35 people, 27 women and 8 men. During the sensory analysis consumers evaluated four varieties of carrots (Nerac – orange, Yellowstone – yellow, White Satin – White and Deep Purple – purple) in 5 different preparations (carrots fresh, frozen, cooked, canned carrot juice) in terms of color, taste and smell. Products with carrots prepared at the Laboratory of Culinary UTP. The results showed that products with orange carrots were evaluated best, reflecting the high level of acceptance for widespread use in manufacturing varieties of orange carrots. The most preferred in terms of parameters is fresh carrot juice. Prepared with black (purple) carrots and white carrots received a lower score in relation to adequate products with orange and yellow carrots, which predisposes to a lesser extent white and black carrots for wider use in processing. Good grades in the organoleptic analysis get products with yellow carrot with predispose the yellow root to wider use in the processing of carrots.

Key words: carrot, organoleptic evaluation, processed products, ‘Nerac’, ‘Yellowstone’, ‘White Satin’, ‘Deep Purple

E. Żary–Sikorska, D. Wichrowska, G. Gozdecka, K. Gęsiński str. 274

 

 

Ocena możliwości zagospodarowania poużytkowego łopat elektrowni wiatrowych

EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF RECOVERED BLADES OF WIND TURBINES

Most manufactured products currently includes elements of plastics. This involves the formation of an increasing number of waste often difficult to process. For the production of renewable energy systems, including wind power, also they used plastics. With an expected service life equal to 20 years, soon will come a significant number of waste from wind power and other renewable sources, which need to be exploited in some way. In wind turbines, plastic consists largely of the blade. They can be recycled to material (grain and re–use as a filler) or energy recovery of the energy contained in the composite. The paper presents the results of environmental impact management methods recovered two blade–type wind power Vestas V100 – landfill waste and recycling. For this purpose, environmental method was used to estimate the life cycle of products LCA program and Sima Pro.

Key words: postconsumer management, wind power blades, Sima Pro, material recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis, recycling energy

R. Kasner, W. Kruszelnicka, I. Piasecka, A. Tomporowski str. 279

 

 

Aspekt techniczny pozyskiwania energii odpadowych w przemyśle

TECHNICAL ASPECT OF RECOVER ENERGY WASTE IN INDUSTRY

The thesis shows modernly use methods of energy efficiency technological processes involving the interception and exploitation waste energy. This energies is a side effect of many industrial processes. It occurs most often in the form of heat and despite good indicators of quality (temperature, entropy) is excreted into the environment. In the energy balance of the process is recognized in the area of loss. Now the primary criterion taken into account in construct of such systems are direct economic benefits giving measurable effect in a relatively short period of time. No less important is the environmental aspect of the problem. The use of such systems on a large scale can cause that the industry will be less disruptive to the environment.

Key words: heat waste energy, Rankine cycle (ORC), natural gas decompression, energy efficiency.

A. Walczak, B. Ligaj str. 284

 

 

Wskaźniki ochrony gleb i gruntów w gminnych programach ochrony środowiska

INDICATORS OF SOIL AND LAND CONSERVATION IN COMMUNE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PLANS

The paper presents an assessment of indicators of soil and land conservation efficiency, contained in 19 environmental protection plans for communes of all counties in Kujawsko–Pomorskie Province. Their aims, ecological priorities and time–tables of environmental–friendly actions were also evaluated in view of soil protection.

The secondary goal is to review the information available in existing databases and studies in terms of their suitability for the construction of environmental indicators of soil and land conservation efficiency. Their potential was determined for use in commune environmental protection plans and reports on their implementation. The paper presents some examples of indicators for use at the local level.

Key words: soil and land conservation, commune environmental plans, environmental protection management, environmental indicators

P. Wiśniewski, M. Wojtasik str. 291

 

 

Analiza zmian poboru wody w województwie kujawsko–pomorskim na tle kraju

The analysis of changes in water intake in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodeship

ON The BACKGROUND OF THE COUNTRY

The Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship belongs to the regions of Poland with low water resources, as evidenced by the lowest average annual rainfall and the lowest specific discharge of rivers. In this paper we analysed the volume of water intake per capita and the share of water taken for the needs of the economy and supply for the population in the years 1999–2013. The average consumption of water per person in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship (an average of 119.5 m3 per person) is one of the lowest as compared to the corresponding value ​​for the country (287.6 m3 per person). Municipal economy has the largest share in the consumption of water (average 47.8%), second in order is industrial production – an average of 32.0%. Particularly noteworthy is large, as compared to the value ​​for the country, the share of water intake for irrigation in agriculture and forestry as well as filling fish ponds (20.2%). Water intake structure in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship varies in different counties. The largest water consumption in the province was recorded in the districts of Świecie and Nakło (above 300 m3 per person), as well as in the districts of Inowrocław and Żnin (150–200 m3 per person). The largest share of water consumption for industrial purposes was recorded in the districts of Świecie, Inowrocław and Żnin. The largest share of water intake for agriculture took place in the district of Nakło (filling the ponds) and Tuchola, Grudziądz and Toruń (irrigation for agricultural needs), where the share of water used was more than 50% of the water taken for the district. In the eastern part of the region, the largest share in the consumption of water has the municipal economy.

The introduction of fees for water usage for agriculture purposes could help to reduce the water usage through more efficient utilization.

Key words: water intake, production purposes, irrigation in agriculture and forestry, fish pond filling, municipal economy

K. Kubiak–Wójcicka, K. Piątkowski str. 297

 

 

Ocena efektywności produkcji ziemniaka jadalnego po wprowadzeniu ograniczeń w technologii uprawy

EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION POTATO EDIBLE PRODUCTION OF RESTRICTIONS AFTER

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE CROP TECHNOLOGY

Progress in the agricultural, environmental and consumer protection and to reduce the amount of manure that we notice in our country, forced to find new technologies of potato cultivation. In 2009–2011 was carried out the study, whose main aim was to determine the unit cost of potato cultivation with the introduction of simplifications in natural and mineral fertilization and chemical protection used on the background of new biological fertilizer soil preparation (UGmax). The use of simplifications in plant protection resulted in a reduction of unit costs of table potato cultivation. The best economic results were obtained after the withdrawal of natural fertilizer in the form of manure. As the use of fertilizer soil UGmax raised unit cost of cultivation of small amount but it is recommended its use because it raises the efficiency of soil and crop quality. The indicator of profitability depended directly from any profit generated mainly by potato tuber yield. Above it an indicator of profitability was the highest for potato cultivation on manure both at 100% and 50% of fertilization.

Key words: potato, cultivation technology, fertilizer, soil, costs, profitability.

E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, T. Szrejber, A. J. Keutgen, E. Żary–Sikorska, D. Wichrowska,

T. Knapowski, W. Kozera str.305

 

 

Zachowania żywieniowe wybranej grupy gimnazjalistów środowisk miejskich o różnej wielkości

NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS 13–16 YEARS OLD OF CITY AND TOWN

Children and teenagers are the most exposed to the effects of inadequate nutrition. They are a group with special prerequisites for eating disorders. Especially focused on their appearance and slim, almost anorexic figure are girls. The frequency of consumption of specific products depending on the degree of liking, the number of meals, self–esteem nutrition knowledge and dietary habits, and beliefs towards a healthy diet were the subject of a survey conducted among a selected group of high school students of cities of different sizes (Ostrołęka and Gdynia).

Key words: adolescents, nutritional behaviours, nutritional beliefs, hedonic scale

J. Bartkowicz str. 310

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liczebność wybranych mikroorganizmów glebowych w okolicach zakładu ArcelorMittal Poland w Krakowie

THE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED SOIL MICROORGANISMS IN THE VICINITY OF ARCELORMITTAL POLAND IN KRAKÓW

This study was performed to evaluate the microbial prevalence in soils within the ArcelorMittal steelworks in Kraków and to verify whether the close proximity to the steelworks affects the number of soil microorganisms in agricultural soils. Research was carried out in four periods: September and December 2010 and in April and June 2011. Six sampling sites were designated within the steelworks and in agricultural fields in its close vicinity. Total number of bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycetes was calculated as well as the number of bacteria taking part in nitrogen transformations: Azotobacter spp. and Rhizobium spp.. The soil pH, moisture and organic matter content were determined. pH of the examined soils was neutral and slightly acidic. The number of the examined microorganisms was characterized by a large seasonal and spatial variation. Great and variable abundance of the studied microbial groups, coupled with numerous occurrence of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) suggest that ArcelorMittal steelworks does not have direct adverse effect on the nearby agricultural areas and on soils in the area of the plant itself.

Key words: soil microorganisms, agricultural areas, industrial areas, Azotobacter, Rhizobium

A. Lenart–Boroń, K. Wolny–Koładka str. 219

 

 

Preferencje młodzieży akademickiej w zakresie

wypoczynku wakacyjnego

STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES FOR HOLIDAY VACATION

The study revealed that the academic community holiday time is spent mainly in the country and the direction of summer travel is mostly coastal. If students participate in foreign destinations, the most common is Europe. Young people appreciate the convenience of choosing the place of accommodation hotel, inn or resort. And although only once a year, they manage to go to rest, mostly they know, exactly where they want to go or what their plans for the future are.

Key words: academic youth, leisure, tourist trips

J. Cichowska str. 227

 

 

Wpływ nawożenia azotem i cynkiem na zawartość magnezu

i manganu w ziarnie pszenżyta jarego

EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND ZINC FERTILIZATION ON THE MAGNESIUM AND MANGANESE CONTENT

IN GRAIN OF SPRING TRITICALE

In 2005–2007 a two–factorial field experiment was carried out established with the randomized split–plot method at the Agricultural Experimental Station Minikowo of the University of Science and Technology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of varied nitrogen rates and foliar application of zinc on the content of magnesium and manganese in grain of spring triticale cv. Kargo. Two levels of nitrogen fertilization were applied (1st factor, n=2): 80 kg N ha–1 (N80) and 120 kg N ha–1 (N120) and three levels of zinc fertilization (2nd factor, n=3): Zn0 (no zinc), Zn1 (0.1 kg ha–1) and Zn2 (0.3 kg ha–1) against the background of constant pre–sowing fertilization with phosphorus and potassium. The study proved that a rate of 120 kg N ha–1 significantly affected a decrease in magnesium content and increase in manganese concentration in spring triticale grain, as compared with a rate of 80 kg N ha–1. Similar directions of changes in contents of the elements under discussion in grain of the studied species were found after foliar application of zinc at a rate of 0.3 kg Zn ha–1 (Zn2), as compared with the treatment fertilized with a rate of 0.1 kg Zn ha–1 (Zn1).

Key words: spring triticale, nitrogen and zinc fertilization, magnesium content, manganese content

W. Kozera, T. Knapowski, B. Barczak, E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny,

W. Mozolewski, M. Świtkowski str. 233

 

 

Kumulacja Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr i Zn w roślinach leczniczych rosnących na terenach semirekreacyjnych

THE ACCUMULATION PB, CD, NI, CR, ZN IN MEDICAL PLANTS GROWING IN RURAL AREAS

An important aspect of phytotherapy is the rate of metals accumulation, i.e.: Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn in medicinal plants. The elements distribution in plants is conditioned phenomenom of discrimination and tolerance on the specified metal, which depends on the plants species and mechanisms influencing its course. Besides phenomenom of distribution of metals is varied anatomically so it is important which plant material is used to production of medicinal preparation. To evaluate the contents of metals in plants it is important the information about their content in individual parts of plants and which bioavailable form in soil is preffered by the plant.

The purpose of research was the evaluation of the accumulation each bioavailable metals forms (exchangeable and adsorbed) in medicinal plants. The plants species have been tested which were presented at simillar habitat rural areas. Rudd’s method was determined Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr. The content of metals in extracts of soil and in morphological parts of plants were determined method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The participation of metals bioavailable form was rated by factors of divisions K1 and K2.

Key words: accumulation, heavy metals, plant, factor of division, phytotherapy

J. Kwapuliński, J. Kowol, G. Librowska, K. Będkowska, P. Brewczyński, K. Kwiecień,

U. Oleśków, M. Swoboda str. 238

 

 

Ocena postaw dzieci w wieku szkolnym w stosunku do wybranych produktów spożywczych

ASSESS THE ATTITUDES PREFERENCES OF SCHOOL – AGE CHILDREN TOWARDS SELECTED

FOOD PRODUCTS

The aim of the poll was to assess consumption preferences of school–age children towards the selected products and meals. The poll was conducted in 2014 among a group of 140 children aged from 9 to 12 attending the Primary School No. 43 in Gdynia. The diagnostic poll method was used in the project. Preferences of the children towards 41 foodstuffs and meals were studied. The degree of acceptance of a specific product was assessed on the basis of a 3–grade scale, and appropriate ranks were assigned to individual replies.

Soft drinks and highly processed products, such as pizza, hamburgers and French fries were classified in the group of products with a high degree of acceptance by children aged 9 to 12. Children willingly consume products with high energy density, which may develop diet–related diseases in the future. It is recommended to introduce educational activities in a family environment and to develop and implement strategies to prevent the incorrect nutritional behaviour in school–age children.

Key words: children, eating habits, the structure of the consumption of food products

A. Platta, K. Żyłka str. 244

 

 

Efektywność odzysku energii w systemach sprężonego powietrza w przemyśle spożywczym

THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

Compressed air is often used in many branches of industry, among others, in the food industry. Contrary to popular belief it is a very expensive medium, whose preparation requires high energy input. This is particularly important in the food industry, where high air cleanliness classes are required, what demands the installation of additional devices. This article attempts to estimate the amount of heat energy, possible to recover from air compressors. The recovered energy can be used in many different ways: as a source of energy for space heating or for heating the hot water for domestic purposes. The consequence of use of heat recovery system allows for the reduction of the energy costs in factories.

Key words: compressed air, energy recovery, compressor, refrigeration dryer

K. Perz, A. Rewolińska str.249

 

 

Zmiany wielkości wycieku rozmrażalniczego wiśni w zależności od warunków przechowywania

CHANGES IN THE SIZE OF THE LEAK THAWING CHERRY DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of time and frozen storage conditions cherry on the size of the leak thawing. In cherries, stored in constant temperature of –5°C, –15°C and –25°C, determined the leakage thawing in cycles of four weeks for twenty weeks of storage.

Analysis of the results showed that the highest rate of change size leak thawing characterized cherries stored at –5°C, and the lowest cherries stored at –25°C.

Key words: frozen fruits, cherry, leak thawing

T. Pukszta, J. Jurzyk str. 253

 

 

Porównanie udziału chronionych i zagrożonych gatunków roślin w kompleksach zbiorowisk roślinnych doliny Noteci i Kanału Bydgoskiego

THE SHARE COMPARISON OF PROTECTED AND THREATENED PLANT SPECIES IN PLANT COMMUNITY COMPLEXES OF NOTEĆ RIVER VALLEY AND BYDGOSZCZ CANAL VALLEY

Within three transects intersecting Noteć and Bydgoszcz Canal valleys encompassing the edges thereof near Ślesin, Nakło upon Noteć and Bielawy occupying in total an area of 25,11 km2 the occurrence of 889 vascular plant taxa were documented. Among them so called “valuable” species, i.e. species under protection and included in national, regional lists and locally rare make 14,52%. There are 13 taxa under strict protection and 21 partially protected.

Betula humilis, Carex atherodes, Ostericum palustre, Sorbus intermedia and Stipa joannis are the most valuable species in the study area included in the Polish red data book. As many as 24 species are on the list of threatened vascular plants of Poland, 60 are threatened within Kujawy–Pomorze region, 61 are threatened in Pomorze and 64 in Wielkopolska. On the list of segetal weeds 33 species are found. The analyzed group comprises 110 locally very rare and rare taxa (12,37% of total flora).”Valuable” species occur the most abundantly within delimitated areas natural to a large degree – in complexes of forest vegetation compatible with their habitat and semi–natural, extensively used – v.c. of xerothermic grasslands and v.c. of grasslands. The size of the compared valley area taken into account has no influence on their species abundance. In a distinctly larger area of Noteć valley 786 taxa were documented, of which 85 (10,81%) are protected and threatened species, wheras in Bydgoszcz Channel valley 751 species were listed, of which 94 (12,52%) are “valuable” species. In the valley of Bydgoszcz Channel there are a lot more “valuable” species despite much earlier and more intensive use. It influences a higher habitat diversity as well as a large number of delimitated areas representing complexes of plant communities with the highest percentage of protected and threatened species – xerothermic glasslands.

Key words: protected and endangered species, river valleys, complexes of plant communities, Noteć, Bydgoszcz Channel

B. Waldon–Rudzionek str. 257

 

 

Właściwości sorpcyjne mleka koziego – ocena porównawcza

THE SORPTION PROPERTIES OF GOATS MILK – COMPARATIVE EVALUATION

The aim of the study was the comparative characteristics of the sorption properties of goat milk powder. The determination of the sorption goat milk powder made by the method of dynamic determination of the kinetics and the rate of water vapor adsorption during the 42 hours of measurement of the kinetics of sorption process of water vapor in an environment having a water activity aw = 0.44; aw = 0.69 and aw = 0.86 and a static method through the designation of water vapor adsorption isotherms. In the experiment determining the water vapor adsorption isotherms, used a wide range of water activity allows to reflect a variety of storage conditions and the product = 0.07 ÷ 0.82.

Key words: sorption isotherms, monolayer capacity, specific surface of sorption, water activity goat milk powder, the BET

M. Ruszkowska str. 269

 

 

Analiza sensoryczna przetworów z mało znanych odmian marchwi

SENSORY ANALYSIS OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF LITTLE–KNOWN VARIETIES OF CARROTS

The aim of this study was sensory analyze of products with colored varieties of carrots as a source of innovation for the domestic processing carrots. In sensory tests conducted in the laboratory for sensory evaluation in the Department of Microbiology and Food Technology at the University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz (UTP) was attended by 35 people, 27 women and 8 men. During the sensory analysis consumers evaluated four varieties of carrots (Nerac – orange, Yellowstone – yellow, White Satin – White and Deep Purple – purple) in 5 different preparations (carrots fresh, frozen, cooked, canned carrot juice) in terms of color, taste and smell. Products with carrots prepared at the Laboratory of Culinary UTP. The results showed that products with orange carrots were evaluated best, reflecting the high level of acceptance for widespread use in manufacturing varieties of orange carrots. The most preferred in terms of parameters is fresh carrot juice. Prepared with black (purple) carrots and white carrots received a lower score in relation to adequate products with orange and yellow carrots, which predisposes to a lesser extent white and black carrots for wider use in processing. Good grades in the organoleptic analysis get products with yellow carrot with predispose the yellow root to wider use in the processing of carrots.

Key words: carrot, organoleptic evaluation, processed products, ‘Nerac’, ‘Yellowstone’, ‘White Satin’, ‘Deep Purple

E. Żary–Sikorska, D. Wichrowska, G. Gozdecka, K. Gęsiński str. 274

 

 

Ocena możliwości zagospodarowania poużytkowego łopat elektrowni wiatrowych

EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF RECOVERED BLADES OF WIND TURBINES

Most manufactured products currently includes elements of plastics. This involves the formation of an increasing number of waste often difficult to process. For the production of renewable energy systems, including wind power, also they used plastics. With an expected service life equal to 20 years, soon will come a significant number of waste from wind power and other renewable sources, which need to be exploited in some way. In wind turbines, plastic consists largely of the blade. They can be recycled to material (grain and re–use as a filler) or energy recovery of the energy contained in the composite. The paper presents the results of environmental impact management methods recovered two blade–type wind power Vestas V100 – landfill waste and recycling. For this purpose, environmental method was used to estimate the life cycle of products LCA program and Sima Pro.

Key words: postconsumer management, wind power blades, Sima Pro, material recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis, recycling energy

R. Kasner, W. Kruszelnicka, I. Piasecka, A. Tomporowski str. 279

 

 

Aspekt techniczny pozyskiwania energii odpadowych w przemyśle

TECHNICAL ASPECT OF RECOVER ENERGY WASTE IN INDUSTRY

The thesis shows modernly use methods of energy efficiency technological processes involving the interception and exploitation waste energy. This energies is a side effect of many industrial processes. It occurs most often in the form of heat and despite good indicators of quality (temperature, entropy) is excreted into the environment. In the energy balance of the process is recognized in the area of loss. Now the primary criterion taken into account in construct of such systems are direct economic benefits giving measurable effect in a relatively short period of time. No less important is the environmental aspect of the problem. The use of such systems on a large scale can cause that the industry will be less disruptive to the environment.

Key words: heat waste energy, Rankine cycle (ORC), natural gas decompression, energy efficiency.

A. Walczak, B. Ligaj str. 284

 

 

Wskaźniki ochrony gleb i gruntów w gminnych programach ochrony środowiska

INDICATORS OF SOIL AND LAND CONSERVATION IN COMMUNE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PLANS

The paper presents an assessment of indicators of soil and land conservation efficiency, contained in 19 environmental protection plans for communes of all counties in Kujawsko–Pomorskie Province. Their aims, ecological priorities and time–tables of environmental–friendly actions were also evaluated in view of soil protection.

The secondary goal is to review the information available in existing databases and studies in terms of their suitability for the construction of environmental indicators of soil and land conservation efficiency. Their potential was determined for use in commune environmental protection plans and reports on their implementation. The paper presents some examples of indicators for use at the local level.

Key words: soil and land conservation, commune environmental plans, environmental protection management, environmental indicators

P. Wiśniewski, M. Wojtasik str. 291

 

 

Analiza zmian poboru wody w województwie kujawsko–pomorskim na tle kraju

The analysis of changes in water intake in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodeship

ON The BACKGROUND OF THE COUNTRY

The Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship belongs to the regions of Poland with low water resources, as evidenced by the lowest average annual rainfall and the lowest specific discharge of rivers. In this paper we analysed the volume of water intake per capita and the share of water taken for the needs of the economy and supply for the population in the years 1999–2013. The average consumption of water per person in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship (an average of 119.5 m3 per person) is one of the lowest as compared to the corresponding value ​​for the country (287.6 m3 per person). Municipal economy has the largest share in the consumption of water (average 47.8%), second in order is industrial production – an average of 32.0%. Particularly noteworthy is large, as compared to the value ​​for the country, the share of water intake for irrigation in agriculture and forestry as well as filling fish ponds (20.2%). Water intake structure in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie voivodship varies in different counties. The largest water consumption in the province was recorded in the districts of Świecie and Nakło (above 300 m3 per person), as well as in the districts of Inowrocław and Żnin (150–200 m3 per person). The largest share of water consumption for industrial purposes was recorded in the districts of Świecie, Inowrocław and Żnin. The largest share of water intake for agriculture took place in the district of Nakło (filling the ponds) and Tuchola, Grudziądz and Toruń (irrigation for agricultural needs), where the share of water used was more than 50% of the water taken for the district. In the eastern part of the region, the largest share in the consumption of water has the municipal economy.

The introduction of fees for water usage for agriculture purposes could help to reduce the water usage through more efficient utilization.

Key words: water intake, production purposes, irrigation in agriculture and forestry, fish pond filling, municipal economy

K. Kubiak–Wójcicka, K. Piątkowski str. 297

 

 

Ocena efektywności produkcji ziemniaka jadalnego po wprowadzeniu ograniczeń w technologii uprawy

EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION POTATO EDIBLE PRODUCTION OF RESTRICTIONS AFTER

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE CROP TECHNOLOGY

Progress in the agricultural, environmental and consumer protection and to reduce the amount of manure that we notice in our country, forced to find new technologies of potato cultivation. In 2009–2011 was carried out the study, whose main aim was to determine the unit cost of potato cultivation with the introduction of simplifications in natural and mineral fertilization and chemical protection used on the background of new biological fertilizer soil preparation (UGmax). The use of simplifications in plant protection resulted in a reduction of unit costs of table potato cultivation. The best economic results were obtained after the withdrawal of natural fertilizer in the form of manure. As the use of fertilizer soil UGmax raised unit cost of cultivation of small amount but it is recommended its use because it raises the efficiency of soil and crop quality. The indicator of profitability depended directly from any profit generated mainly by potato tuber yield. Above it an indicator of profitability was the highest for potato cultivation on manure both at 100% and 50% of fertilization.

Key words: potato, cultivation technology, fertilizer, soil, costs, profitability.

E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, T. Szrejber, A. J. Keutgen, E. Żary–Sikorska, D. Wichrowska,

T. Knapowski, W. Kozera str.305

 

 

Zachowania żywieniowe wybranej grupy gimnazjalistów środowisk miejskich o różnej wielkości

NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS 13–16 YEARS OLD OF CITY AND TOWN

Children and teenagers are the most exposed to the effects of inadequate nutrition. They are a group with special prerequisites for eating disorders. Especially focused on their appearance and slim, almost anorexic figure are girls. The frequency of consumption of specific products depending on the degree of liking, the number of meals, self–esteem nutrition knowledge and dietary habits, and beliefs towards a healthy diet were the subject of a survey conducted among a selected group of high school students of cities of different sizes (Ostrołęka and Gdynia).

Key words: adolescents, nutritional behaviours, nutritional beliefs, hedonic scale

J. Bartkowicz str. 310

 

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