EiT 4 2009

Kryteria oceny zmian zawartoci niklu w rodowisku przyrodniczym w zasigu wpywu punktowego róda emisji
CRITERION OF EVALUATION CHANGE OF NICKEL CONTENTS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ON RANGE INFLUENCE EMISSION OF ONE POINT SOURCE
R. Rochel, J. Kwapuliski, M. Zielonka, D. Griger, J. Wiaderkiewicz, D. Kmak–Kapusta, D. Jabecka, M. Surma     str. 140

The factor of specific accumulation for collected plants in range of influence of emission Miasteczko lskie smelter in comparison to observed values for plants from Tatra National Park are greater about 50–320 times. The comparison concering only average element content in given species of plants (n = 10), occurring on this areas. For estimation of the changes in environment aplicate one factor of specific accumulation of nickel, established for Urtica dioica L., as everywhere species
Key words: nickel, morphological parts, plant, emission



Wyznaczanie udziau form bezporednio i potencjalnie biodostpnych niklu w glebie
THE ESTIMATION OF THE PART DIRECTLY AND POTENTIAL BIOAVAILABILITY FORMS NICKEL IN SOIL
J. Kwapuliski, E. Królak, R. Rochel, M. Zielonka, D. Kapusta str. 146
In the paper mainly the changes nickel contents in soil in function of the changes directly and indirectly were presented. Rectilinear range of the changes suggest on proportional presence these form in soil. The comparison of factor k1 and k2 indicate also on greater important in cycle of migration of nickel for exchangeable and adsorbed ion.
Moreover detailed described the degree of important bioavailability nickel in soil. In cause occurrence acid rains the potential bioavailability can to increase the total nickel contents in soil. The range of important directly bioavailability forms is somewhat minor.



Podstawy rozwoju przetwarzania mas makulaturowych w mynach
DEVELOPMENT BASIS OF WASTE PAPER TREATMENT IN REFINERS
A. Mroziski str. 151

In the paper there was presented investigation methodology of power consumption by disc refiner, which worked on industrial scale. In the article there was presented the structure of qualitative and energetic model, which described beating process of waste–paper stock in disc refiner. Author has chosen the basic parameters of this process, which can be obtained during investigations on  industrial scale. The volume of total power consumption for changing gape between discs and for some of remaining and defined technological parameters of refiner work was examined and described. This enabled to define real volume of individual component powers. The refiner work conditions, in which the process being carried out can applied for obtaining  the best results of beating, were defined. Presented conception of mathematical models elaboration enabled the comprehensive   solution of the problem of mutual relations of power consumption components in relation to working conditions of investigated refiner grinding unit. Accepted assumptions and methods of logical proceeding resulted in elaboration of original work algorithm and finally led to the elaboration of the unique graph: (Nc, Nm, Nt, Nr) = f(x).
Key words: disc refiner, beating, power consumption, waste–paper



Problemy gospodarki odpadami komunalnymi ulegajcymi biodegradacji na przykadzie woj. lubelskiego
THE PROBLEMS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL FOR EXAMPLE WOJ. LUBELSKIEGO
H. Marczak str. 159

The requirements for Polish and woj. lubelskiego in reducing the amount of municipal waste landfilled biodegradable. Based on data for woj. lublelsiego reduce the estimated balance sheet as a result of selective collection, the weight of municipal waste landfilled biodegradable. The missing performance installation for biological transformation of biodegradable waste for woj. lubelskiego. In order to achieve the required reduction in the mass storage of biodegradable municipal waste in woj. Lublin, it is necessary to the construction of installations for the processing of mixed waste. These are in particular plants for the mechanical and biological treatment of waste. An assessment of the installations for the reduction of biodegradable waste. Estimated technical potential for biogas from waste. It has been assumed that in the process of methane fermentation of 1 kg of dry organic matter contained in the waste is obtained 0,385–0,458 mn3 biogas. The results of calculations of energy, which are possible for use with biogas.
Key words: municipal waste, biodegradable waste, mechanical–biological waste treatment, methane fermentation, biogas, energy from biogas.



Wpyw sposobu uprawy roli na aktywno enzymatyczn gleby i plon kukurydzy
EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN SOIL AND MAIZE YIELD
M. Natywa, Leszek Majchrzak, Aleksandra Sawicka str. 171

The aim of the studies was determine the impact of different soil tillage systems as well as conventional, direct seeding and crop residue (control– stubble, wheat straw, spring vetch, oat and white mustard) on the dehydrogenase activity in soil and maize yield. The experiment was carried out at ZDD Swadzim belong to Pozna University of Life Sciences and it included 10 experimental plots which were sown with maize. Soil samples for analyses were taken in 5 terms in the vegetation season: before sowing (control), in the phase of 2–3 leaves, in the phase of 7–8 leaves, in the phase of tasseling and after harvest of maize.
For the determination of dehydrogenases activity, the Thalmann’s method was applied [38]. It was found, that the highest activity of dehydrogenases was recorded in summer, in the phase of tasseling. Number of plants was significantly higher on the treatments with ploughing tillage and higher fresh matter yield of maize and cobs yield was observed on the treatment with traditional tillage.
Key words: dehydrogenases, soil enzymes,  maize, soil, direct seeding, conventional tillage, crop residue



Dynamika opadów atmosferycznych a zasobno zwizków biogenicznych i materii organicznej w jeziorach ródlenych
THE DYNAMICS OF PRECIPITATION AND THE ABUNDANCE OF BIOGENIC COMPOUNDS AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN MID–FOREST LAKES 
T. Joniak str. 178

The values of physical and chemical parameters of water versus a decreasing of the precipitation amounts in dystrophic humic lakes were analysed. The subject of the investigation were the three small mid–forest, postglacial lakes differing between the content of humic substances and organic carbon, lie in north–western Poland. In period of investigations the reduction of annual precipitations exceeded 30%. The analyses included physically and chemically features of water, especially dissolved organic compounds (DOM, TOC, and DHS) as well as mineral (hardness, form of phosphorus and nitrogen). The lakes were differed in terms of TOC and DHS concentration. The rise of humic status of water was accompanied by increased participation of organic carbon of humic acids. In each lake the effects of reduction of precipitations were other: in polyhumic lake was noted high increase concentrations of DOM, and in meso– and oligohumic lake the decrease of abundance of mineral compounds.
Key words: lake, reduction of precipitations, catchment area, mineral substances, organic matter.



Ocena procesu kofermentacji mieszaniny pomiotu kurzego, organicznej biomasy rolinnej i osadów ciekowych
EVALUATION OF THE CO–DIGESTION PROCESS UTILIZING POULTRY MANURE, PLANT WASTES AND SEWAGE SLUDGE
S. Borowski, J. Domaski str. 182

A study of the anaerobic co–digestion of sewage sludge with poultry manure and organic biowaste in a laboratory batch conditions was undertaken. The anaerobic mesophilic digestion was applied for the treatment of primary and waste activated sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in ód together with manure from non–litter poultry farming in Zgierz and with organic biowaste. It was found that waste activated sludge itself and its mixture with primary sludge had a relatively large potential for biogas production and anaerobic decomposition, however, a 10 % addition of poultry manure significantly increased this yield. The mixture of primary and waste activated sludge with poultry manure in the ratio of 65 : 25 : 10 turned out to be the most optimal in terms of the digestion efficiency. The co–digestion of that mixture lead to yield 0,42 dm3 biogas from 1 kg of organic solids, and to obtain the organic soilds reduction of over 50 %. A poor biodegradability of organic biowaste was also reported since even a 10 % addition of that waste to the sludge inhibited the biogas production during digestion.
Key words: co–digestion, poultry manure, sewage sludge, stabilization, biogas



Modelling uniformity of loads of biological materials multi–edge grinders
MODELOWANIE RÓWNOMIERNOCI OBCIE  WIELOKRAWDZIOWYCH ROZDRABNIACZY MATERIAÓW BIOLOGICZNYCH
A. Tomporowski    str. 187

W pracy przeprowadzono modelowanie równomiernoci obcie wielokrawdziowych rozdrabniaczy materiaów biologicznych. Dla przyjtych zaoe zaproponowano model  fizyczny w postaci funkcji trygonometrycznej i wykadniczej. Zaproponowana metodyka modelowania matematycznego krzywej nierównomiernoci biegu maszyny i samego procesu rozdrabniania wypenia oczekiwania odnonie rozwoju, w kierunku: wysokiej efektywnoci procesu i uytecznej jakoci produktu. Zgodno powyszego modelu do przebiegu rzeczywistego ocenian funkcj (Q=||y–y*||)  ustalono na poziomie 6–12% w zalenoci od waciwoci drewna. Niezbdnym warunkiem podwyszania równomiernoci i sprawnoci oraz dalszego rozwoju procesu rozdrabniania materiaów biologicznych i wóknistych jest opracowanie efektywnej metody modelowania i opisu krzywej nierównomiernoci rozdrabniania. 
Sowa kluczowe: nierównomierno,  rozdrabnianie, materiay biologiczne, rozdrabniacze wielokrawdziowe


Informacje o konferencjach str. 192

 

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