EiT 5 2009

Rolnicze uytkowanie ziemi w Bydgoszczy
THE AGRICULTURAL GROUNDS IN BYDGOSZCZ
R. Gotowski str. 199

The article represents the analysis of structure of agricultural grounds in Bydgoszcz, basing on data derivated from geodetic system of grounds and buildings. The carried irvestigations of agricultural grounds regarding their utilization testify, that on the studied area agricultural uses characterized by diversified distribution. This is caused both by the conditions of natural environment (morphology, undergrand waters, forests), and the process of city development.  The research shows that application of surveying records gives great opportunities to estimate the processes undergoing in the city.
Key words: agricultural grounds, natural conditions, peripheries of the city, urban and suburban areas



Oczyszczanie gazów (odlotowych) – projektowanie puczek z zastosowaniem programu Matlab
PURIFICATION OF GAS – DESIGN CALCULATION OF SCRUBBERS WITH THE USE OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE MATLAB
P. Pianko–Oprych, K. Jagieo str. 203

This work presents a division of gas cleaning methods and apparatus with particularly consideration scrubbers. Scrubbers are applied widely to removing gaseous pollutants by many industries. The device is applicable for a wide range of pollutants. The pollutants include inorganic fumes, volatile organic compound as well as hazardous pollutant. In the past, scrubbers were made from heavy carbon steel or metal, which causes a negative opinion about devices. The equipment was too heavy, too big and problems of corrosion were very common. The heavy carbon steel was replacement by a range of material such as plastic or polypropylene. It was a turning point in a broad range of industry applications, because new scrubbers are a certain lighter and smaller. In this paper, the packed bed scrubber and the shell foam type gas scrubber were studied and compared. The scrubber efficiency, investment and running costs with the water usage were also investigated. For approachable in the literature of data design calculations were carried out for the packed bed scrubber and the shell foam type gas scrubber according to Warych [1] guidelines. To perform design calculations two computational procedures for both scrubbers were established in the Matlab software. These procedures enable efficient design calculations at different conditions of gas cleaning.
Key words: gas cleaning, packed bed wet scrubber (packed tower), shell foam type gas scrubber, design calculation



Wykorzystanie popiou pochodzcego ze spalania osadów ciekowych jako aktywnego dodatku w technologii kompozytów cementowych
THE USE OF ASH DERIVED FROM COMBUSTION OF SLUDGE AS ACTIVE ADDITION TO CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES
M. Kosior–Kazberuk str. 212

The thermal mineralization of sludge is one of modern methods of its disposal. The paper deals with the investigations concerning the possibility of utilization the ash derived from the thermal mineralization of sludge as the active addition to mortars or concretes. The analogy between the ash from sludge combustion and traditional mineral additions used in cement composites technology, was observed. It was found that the material tested points out the pozzolana activity. The addition causes the delay of the beginning of the cement–binder hydration process, but it does not prolong the entire setting time. The presence of the ash causes the slowdown in the dynamics of the compressive as well as tensile strength development of cement composites, but it does not reduce the final strength. The results presented indicate the possibility of the utilization of the ash from sludge combustion as active component replacing the part of cement.
Key words: sludge, thermal mineralization, mortar, pozzolanic activity, compressive strength


Kukurydza (Zea mays) i miskant olbrzymi (Miscanthus x giganteus) jako roliny energetyczne
MAZIE AND MISCANTHUS X GIGANTEUS AS ENERGY CROPS
Z. Wyszyski, I. Toborowicz–Borda str. 219

Agriculture of XXI century meets a quite new challenge, a production and supplying of adequate amount  of biomass showing specific energy parameters. It will be possible due to the aimed cultivation of  multiannual lignin–cellulotic crops, i.e. Miscanthus x Giganteus or to providing some amount of yield of actually cultivated ones, as e.g. maize. Following an appropriate biomass processing of these crops we can get specific kind of biofuels: solid, liquid And gaseous. Nowadays, the biomass of Miscanthus x Giganteus undergoes processing into briquettes, while in the future it will be used to produce liquid biofuels of II generation. The most promising perspective for maize as an energy crop in Poland relates  to biogas production.
Key words: maize, Miscanthus x Giganteus, biomass, bioethanol, biogas, II generation biofuels


Emisja zanieczyszcze do powietrza z fermy intensywnego chowu brojlerów kurzych
POLLUTANTS EMISSION INTO AIR FROM INTENSIVE REARING FARM OF CHICKEN BROILERS
P. Wojewódzki str. 228

In hereby publication the impact range of pollutants emission into air from the system of mechanical ventilation of chicken broilers houses was characterized. The impact range of ammonia and PM10 dust was assessed. Emissions from the broilers house of 40 000 stands and combinations of three above described objects were analyzed. On the ground of performed calculations and pollutants concentration maps it was verified that the crucial factor that influence on the appearance of the exceeded levels of substances in the air is horizontal or vertical air outflow from the ventilators installed in the buildings front walls.
Key words: poultry houses, broilers, pollutants, ventilation, ammonia, dust PM10.


Struktura makrofitów na tle warunków siedliskowych zbiornika retencyjnego w 8 lat po jego powstaniu
STRUCTURE OF MACROPHYTES iN COMPARISON WITH HABITAT CONDITIONS IN WATER RESERVOIR 8 YEARS AFTER ITS EXISTENCE
J. Sender str. 235

Dammed reservoirs are characterized special morphometrical structure. It is a banked up section of  a river. So what, there are places with different conditions within the reservoir. Water biocenosis are specific to lake as well as river ecosystems. Dammed reservoirs belong to ecosystems unwillingly colonize by water plants, such important in water ecosystem functioning. Water reservoir Majdan Zahorodyski with a surface 49 ha came into existence in 2000. The main goal its building was hydrological regime regulation of region as well as recreational using. The present structure of macrophytes and physical and chemical properties of water shoved that investigated reservoir is in the high eutrophy stage. Phytolittoral was irregular and covered 32% of water surface. 11 plant communities created the phytolittoral.
Key words: water reservoir, macrophytes


Podno poci (Rutilus rutilus L.) z dolnego biegu rzeki Brdy
FECUNDITY OF ROACH (RUTILUS RUTILUS L.) IN THE LOWER BRDA RIVER SECTOR
J. Dbrowski, G. Gackowski, M. Hoffa  str. 240

Roaches to investigation were carried out from Brda river in Bydgoszcz near Iawska street fourth decade of April in 2008, used fishing rod. Total 130 females were investigated.  Absolute fecundity was determined with the gravimetric method and relative fecundity was calculated to 1 g of female’s body weight.
Absolute fecundity of investigated roaches for the body length from 12,7 to 20,7 cm ranged from 7300 to 37700 eggs. A clear increase of absolute fecundity was observed which were accompanied with increase of body length, weight and age. The relative fecundity of investigated roach ranged from 126 to 265 eggs. Roaches from Brda river had relatively higher fecundity than roaches from other rivers and lakes.
Key words: roach, absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, Brda river


Podstawy prawne zapobiegania powanym awariom stwarzajcym zagroenia dla rodowiska
THE LEGAL BASES OF PREVENTING MAJOR ACCIDENTS CAUSING ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
T. Piotrowski, R. wietlik str. 243

In this paper the hazards for humans and environment connected with chemical failures, which may cause ecological disasters of various intensity and activity area, were presented. Legal status of that problem in the European Union and in Poland were discussed. Some most serious industrial disasters of last 40 years were cited. The causes and consequences of industrial failures starting described incidents were given. An attention was paid on environmental hazard caused by transportation on a big scale of crude oil and petroleum products.
Key words: industrial failures, chemical disasters, Seveso directive, failure prevention, safety report



Research and analysis on regularity cut of recyced polimers
BADANIE I ANALIZA RÓWNOMIERNOCI CICIA RECYKLATÓW POLIMEROWYCH
A. Tomporowski  str. 251

The polymer medium comminution process is influenced by two major aspects: – the influence of design features of active machine on overall efficiency and uniform working condition; – mechanical basis of the material processing (inclusive of the mechanics principles). The current state of science does not offer the detailed, scientific description of the design features on functional characteristic. Such description can be formulated by performance controlled matching of machine design. Non–uniform operation of multi–edge shredders for plastics depends on two components, – the turning moment (effective work) and angular velocity (rate of active module). Degree of non–uniform operation of the polymer medium shredders can be evaluated basing on inaccuracy of realization of the determined movement, i.e. non–uniform run, non–uniform loads and the efficiency as well. The power absorbed by knife drive is very irregular because of certain intervals of idle run, which takes place between cutting of the succeeding plastic chunks.
Key works: crushing, recycling, irregularity

 

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