Wyznaczanie efektywnego współczynnika dyfuzji soli kadmu w bio-sorbencie alginianowym
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITY OF CADMIUM SALTS IN ALGINATE BIOSORBENT
Sorption by material of biological origin is recognized as an emerging technique for elimination of heavy metals from polluted streams. Very effective biosorbents of heavy metal ions are alginates, especially in the case of the diluted aqueous solutions. The alginate gels are obtained in the form of spherical beads by a suitable treatment. The rate of the heavy metal ions sorption by alginate beads is as a rule limited by the rate of internal diffusion character-ized by the effective diffusivity De. Commonly used methods of De determination apply the labour–consuming procedures allowing to measure the heavy metal ions concentration. In this work a method was developed which de-pends on using a conductometer to determine the changes of cadmium salts concentrations in solution and connec-tion of these determinations with effective diffusivity. Sodium alginate purchased from Sigma–Aldrich was used in preparation of alginate biosorbent. In the first step the calcium alginate beads were obtained by dripping the sodium alginate solution into 0.05M CaCl2. By this proce-dure biosorbent beads of three different concentrations (1.5, 3.7 and 5.7% w/w) were prepared. In the next step the beads were soaked in 0.1 M CdSO4 or CdCl2 solutions to replace calcium with cadmium ions. The determination of effective diffusivity was carried out in a closed system, at a constant temperature 250C. Cadmium salts diffused from the pores of beads to distilled water and the process was limited by diffusion. The increase of CdSO4 or CdCl2 con-centration in solution causes the increase of conductivity. At selected time intervals conductivity of solution was measured by microcomputer conductometer CPC–551 from Elmetron. These data were used for calculation of effective diffusivity De which ranged from 0,37.10–9 to 0,73.10–9
. The effective diffusivity decrease with the increase of alginate concentration. It is in accordance with a mechanism of diffusion in porous carriers.
Key words: biomaterial, heavy metals, alginate, diffusivity coefficient, cadmium ions
S. Kwiatkowska–Marks, L. Kopiński, M. Wójcik str. 3
Analiza czystości mikrobiologicznej powietrza na terenie LPKiW w Myślęcinku
ANALYSIS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR CLEANLINESS IN THE AREA OF THE FOREST PARK OF CULTURE AND LEISURE (LPKIW) IN MYŚLĘCINEK
aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of the air
at the Forest Park of Culture and Leisure (LPKiW) in Myślęcinek. From
the results obtained during the study it can be stated that in the
analysed period, which included April, May and June, no permitted air
pollution norms were exceeded as regards the total number of bacteria,
α–haemolytic staphylococci and fungi. Additionally, incidental exceeding
of norms for the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, β–haemolytic
staphylococci, mannitol–positive staphylococci and actinomyces were
found in the air at the LPKiW in Myślęcinek, which caused that the air
was assessed as moderately polluted. The zoological garden situated in
the park can have an influence on the level of air pollution in its
vicinity, which is indicated by exceeding norms with reference to β–
haemolytic staphylococci. The area of the LPKiW in Myślęcinek can be
treated as a background point for other studies conducted in the
vicinity of facilities which are an environmental nuisance, particularly
concerning the total number of bacteria and the total number of fungi.
In the present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated from the
air, from the research stand located in the vicinity of the water
reservoir, which confirms that this is a good indicator of the emission
of water bioaerosol.
Key words: air, microbiological quality, bacteria, fungi
K. Budzińska, A. Brudnicki str. 11
Oddziaływanie zróżnicowanego nawożenia na zawartość fosforu ogółem w glebie płowej oraz w wybranych roślinach uprawnych
EFFECT OF VARIED FERTILISATION ON THE CONTENT OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS IN LUVISOL AND SELECTED CROPS
The present paper presents the results of research into the content of total phosphorus in Luvisol and in the crops grown throughout the four–year crop rotation. Factor One of the experiment involved FYM fertilisation, while Factor Two – nitrogen fertilisation in a form of ammonium nitrate. The experimental factors applied significantly modified the total content of phosphorus in soil. The level of the total phosphorus content in the Luvisol investigated also depended on the crop throughout the four–year experiment. The accumulation of the total phosphorus content in the plants depended significantly on the fertilisation. The phosphorus uptake capacity of the crops tested under the fertilisation conditions was as follows: maize, potato, spring barley, winter wheat.
Key words: total phosphorus, fertilization, FYM, nitrogen, soil, plants, bioaccumulations index
J. Lemanowicz str. 17
Analiza gospodarki ściekowej podregionu ostrołęcko–siedleckiego na tle województwa mazowieckiego w latach 1999–2008
ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE MANAGEMENT IN OSTROŁĘKA – SIEDLCE SUBREGION AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MAZOVIAN VOIVODESHIP IN 1999–2008
The aim of the paper was to analyse changes with regard to sewage management in Ostrołęka – Siedlce subre -gion in relation to Mazovian voivodeship in 1999–2008. The studies were carried out on data regarding sewage man-agement in Ostrołęka – Siedlce subregion and in Mazovian voivodeship, on population served by purification plants, on the amount of industrial wastes and municipal sewages, which needed to be purified and which were purified, and on the purification methods. The material and information from GUS documents were analysed. There was an in-crease in the amount of industrial wastes in the subregion between 1999 and 2008, and the largest amount of them was dumped directly into water or soil, while the amount of the wastes dumped into the sewage system decreased. Compared to 1999, the amount of industrial wastes, which needed to be purified in Mazovian voivodeship in 2008, decreased by about 20.0%, however, the amount of them in Ostrołęka – Siedlce subregion showed slight fluctuations in the analysed period. Most tested industrial wastes were purified. Reutilization of wastes in the production process is a beneficial phenomenon in water–sewage management in the analysed region. The amount of impurified wastes decreased by over 6 times in Mazovian voivodeship, whereas it increased over twice in Ostrołęka – Siedlce subre-gion. The largest percentage of industrial wastes was purified by the biological method, both in Mazovian voivodeship and in Ostrołęka – Siedlce subregion
Key words: municipal sewages, industrial wastes, methods of purification
E. Bombik1, A. Bombik2, A. Marciniuk–Kluska str. 22
Zastosowanie wybranych biotestów w ekotoksykologicznej ocenie osadów ściekowych różnego pochodzenia
APPROACH TO USE SELECTED BIOTESTS IN ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTING OF SLUDGE SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN
paper presents detailed characteristics of sewage sludge samples and to
use selected biotests in ecotoxicological testing of this samples.
Waste samples originating from certain types of waste collected from the
waste producing and/or sludge processing companies were used in this
study as the research material. Differentiation of origin, chemical
composition and potential toxicity of samples were main criterion during
selection of examined raw material. The samples were temporarily stored
at –20°C up to the time of testing. Altogether, 9 waste samples were
examined. For the characterization of acute ecotoxicity an aqueous
eluate of each examined sample was prepared. The aqueous eluates of all
examined samples were investigated first by means of the luminescent
bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) test according standardized test procedure
described in the Polish Standard PN–EN ISO 11348–3:2002.
Key words: sewage sludge, toxicity, ecotoxicology, heavy metals, biotest
M. Szymański, P. Konieczny, T. Sobczyński, L. Pilc str. 29
Przeżywalność pałeczek Salmonella Senftenberg W775 w płynnych odchodach zwierzęcych|
SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA SALMONELLA SENFTENBERG W775 IN LIQUID ANIMAL FAECES
The aim of this study was to estimate the inactivation rate of indicator bacteria Salmonella Senftenberg W775 with the Effective Microorganisms (EM) and to evaluate the physico–chemical parametres of slurry from a pig–breeding farm. The elimination rate of the tested bacteria was 0.15 log/day in the sample with the application of the EM prep-aration, while in the sample without the application of the EM preparation it took a value of 0.12 log/day. Theoretical survival time of the tested bacteria Salmonella Senftenberg W775 was 53 days (i.e. 7.6 weeks) for a sample with using the EM preparation, and 67 days (i.e. 9.6 weeks) for the sample without using the EM preparation. Application of Effective Microorganisms in practice as an additive to liquid animal faeces in order to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms creates an alternative to traditional methods of pathogenic bacteria elimination. Summing up, it can be concluded that introduction of mixture of effective microorganisms into slurry contributed to an increase in elimination rate of the tested bacteria.
Key words: liquid animal faeces, survival, Salmonella Senftenberg W775
B. Szejniuk, B. Korytkowski, A. Traczykowski str. 39
przebieg całkowitego promieniowania słonecznego i temperatury powietrza
w Bydgoszczy w zależności od rodzaju masy powietrza
DAILY COURSE OF GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION AND AIR TEMPERATURE IN BYDGOSZCZ DEPENDING ON KIND OF AIR MASS
The aim of the paper was to investigate the daily course of global solar radiation and air temperature in Bydgoszcz (in January, April, July, October) depending on kind of air mass. The study was based on the data collected from 2003 to 2007 by automatic station, situated in the west side of Bydgoszcz. Air masses was specified on the base of surface synoptic charts of Europe from 00:00 UTC, published in Daily Meteorological Bulletin of IMGW.
Key words: global solar radiation, air temperature, daily course, air masses, Bydgoszcz.
M. Więcław str. 43