Key words: metallurgical slag, chemical composition, heavy metals, environmental protection
Characteristics of selected heavy metals present in the highly weathered steelmaking slag and slag after zinc and lead production was presented in the article. It was done by analysis of geochemical properties of metals, analysis of their content in the studied slags and their relationships with the components of the slags. On this basis, it was found that despite the long storage of slags on dumps, metals are still present in their chemical composition. Processes of slow releases and migration of heavy metals are especially expected in relation to the Zn–Pb slags, what is facilitated by the presence of sulfur in their chemical composition. In steelmaking slags a significant concentrations of calcium affects the behavior of the slags alkaline properties, what inhibits the process of metals release. An important issue is form of metals occurrence in the slags. The easiest migration of heavy metals is from glaze, which is one of the most vulnerable waste components to weathering processes. The hardest release of metals takes place from silicate phase, in which they form substitution in the internal structures.
HEAVY METALS IN STRONGLY WEATHERED STEELMAKING SLAGS AND SLAGS AFTER Zn–Pb ORES
Metale ciężkie w silnie zwietrzałych żużlach stalowniczych oraz żużlach po przeróbce rud Zn–Pb
Świetlik, M. Strzelecka
Key words: road transport, traffic emission, chromium, zinc, copper, nickel, lead
In this work the methodology for evaluation of metal emissions from motor traffic has been applied to carry out a a comparative assessment of heavy metals emission intensity on main national transit roads. The road sections involved were characterized by a traffic flow of 10,000 veh.·d–1 to 70,000 veh.·d–1 and a diverse motor traffic structure. The data obtained made it possible to determine the importance of the basic processes responsible for emission of metals from means of transport, including brake wear, tire wear, road abrasion and fuel combustion. The emission intensity values were also used to evaluate a potential exposure of the soil adjacent to transit roads to heavy metals contamination. The analysis indicated a danger of permanent copper contamination of the areas alongside motorways and dual carriageways.
ON MAIN NATIONAL ROADS
EVALUATION OF EMISSION INTENSITY OF HEAVY METALS FROM MOTOR TRAFFIC
na głównych drogach krajowych
Ocena natężenia emisji metali ciężkich z ruchu samochodowego
Kubiak–Wójcicka, I. Lewandowska
Key words: lake surface area change, Gąsawka, Struga Foluska, upper Noteć, proposed Pałucki Landscape Park
On the basis of cartographic materials released in various periods (1889–1890, 1975 and 2010) covering the area of the proposed Pałucki Landscape Park, it has been proven that there is a general shrink trend in lakes. Total loss of lake surface area between 1890 and 2010 was 4.15%, or 7% between 1890 and 1975. These values are much smaller than those calculated for the entire Wielkopolsko–Kujawski Lakeland, due to the location of the lakes within the subglacial channels. Decrease or growth of individual lakes’ surface area depends on the characteristics of the lake, its morphometric parameters and human activity (irrigation works, lake damming). Assuming that the current trend will be sustained at the unfavourable level of 7% over 85 years, the total disappearance of lakes within the planned landscape park will take place in 1200 years, which is over 2 times more than the whole Wielkopolsko–Kujawski Lakeland.
Changes of the lakes area in the Proposed Pałucki Landscape Park
Zmiany powierzchni jezior na terenie projektowanego Pałuckiego Parku Krajobrazowego
Key words: brown coal, mine waters, macrophytes, biodiversity, open–pit mine
Mine waters are perceived as a one of the most dangerous waste waters and their role in environment will increase. In case of open–pit mines mine water drainage is necessary and cause cone of depression and water quality changes in surrounding rivers. Aim of studies was evaluation of changes of macrophyte biodiversity in watercourses affected by mine waters pressure. Four discharges from mines were studied, as like Tomisławice – two discharges, Bełchatów and Drzewce. In each location three sites were examined. Upper sites were situated 50 metres above mine waters discharge, lower sites were situated 100 and 1000 metres below discharge. Data for calculation of biodiversity indices were collected in the same places as water samples. In general, impact of mine waters from brown coal mining caused decrease of biodiversity but it was not statistically significant. In Noteć River the statistical analyses showed differences between river sites accepting turbid mine waters and others. Significant impact of water transparency and chlorides on macrophyte biodiversity indices was found.
THE IMPACT OF BROWN COAL MINE WATERS ON THE CHANGES OF MACROPHYTES BIODIVERSITY
Wpływ wód kopalnianych z odkrywek węgla brunatnego na zmiany różnorodności biologicznej makrofitów
Sztubecki, M. Sztubecka, A. Bujarkiewicz
Key words: Geographic Information Systems, green area, environmental management, database
Areas protected by law or green areas in cities are characterized a different arrangement of space. Forestation and bushes for this type of urban areas, often under conservation protection, need to carry out periodic maintenance works and revitalization . The article presents the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the creation of databases of selected green areas. The resulting bases are the facilitate management of this type of areas. They allow to accumulate, warehouse, update, maintain and use all information. They provide a basic action in the architectural planning of measures, which can be a contribution to better space management. The complexity of such areas requires appropriate action creating this type of database. Presented base selected urban parks in Bydgoszcz and the area of nature–tourism in the Tucholski Landscape Park and the analyzes show the validity of this type of studies.
The green areas are one of the important components of the natural environment and cultural heritage. Since ancient times, been regarded as an essential component of living environment, improving living conditions. Their location and size is an important factor in determining the quality of rest.
THE USAGE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN MANAGEMENT OF GREEN AREAS
Zastosowanie Systemów Informacji Geograficznej w zarządzaniu przestrzenią terenów zielonych
Key words: optical features of water, water recreation, without–flow lakes, water quality management, urban agglomeration
The optical characteristics of water may be used as indicators of the lakes water quality and their recreational usability. It is a confirmed by the use in the water quality classification such universal parameters as chlorophyll a and transparency. Values of physical–chemical and biological parameters which form the optical properties of water are dependent on the trophic state and pollution. This study was carried out in 8 without–flow lakes located in and around the Poznań agglomeration. Lakes and reservoirs in urban areas and suburban areas are of particular objects in terms of landscape, as well as utility. In this case problems of water management is more difficult due of large variety the negative pressures as well as the unpredictability their temporal and spatial variability. Hydrological isolation of without–flow lakes creates theoretically conditions of smaller exposure to pollution and degradation. However, when the water pollution occurred the possibility of natural elimination the negative environmental effects for lake is radically reduced as well as natural regeneration of ecosystem.
OPTICAL PARAMETERS OF WATER AS A TOOL THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY AND RECREATIONAL SUITABILITY OF LAKES
Charakterystyki optyczne wody jako narzędzia oceny potencjału rekreacyjnego i jakości wód jezior
Szopińska, J. Kwiecień
Key words: strategic noise map, anthropogenic noise, noise nuisance, forest area, Bydgoszcz city
The paper presents a study on the impact of anthropogenic noise on the woodland resource used SNM of Bydgoszcz city. Posted fragments map show the long–term average level of traffic noise, rail and tram deducted for the indicator LDWN. Objective of the study was the city park – Forest Park of Culture and Leisure in Bydgoszcz named “Myślęcinek” and legally protected areas, including Landscape Park of the Lower Vistula Valley. The results stated in the research show that the most troublesome source of anthropogenic noise is a linear source of noise generated mainly by road and rail.
Due to the fact that noise nuisance can significantly affect the functioning of forest ecosystems in the study investigated the effect of anthropogenic noise from urban areas to the quality of the acoustic climate of forest resource use strategic noise map (SNM).
OF FOREST AREAS
STRATEGIC NOISE MAP AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT anthropogenic noise
Strategiczna mapa akustyczna jako źródło informacji o hałasie antropogenicznym terenów leśnych