Recykling krzemu w przemyśle fotowoltaicznym
RECYCLING OF SILICON IN THE PV INDUSTRY
Currently, silicon is the most commonly used material for the photovoltaic devices manufacturing, which are able to directly convert the sun energy into electricity. However, the problem is in the high cost of manufacturing the pure silicon, suitable for the photovoltaic industry. Devising the effective methods for the efficient waste management, which are generated at every stage of production, allows the recyclable materials recovering. Re–use of recycled materials will give ecological and economic benefit, improving balance of raw materials. Repeated use of recyclable materials allows to energy saving and to cover the still increasing demand for silicon, saving the primary material.
Key words: recycling of PV cells, PV modules recycling, reclamation of silicon, silicon waste
E. Radziemska, P. Ostrowski str. 47
Dobowy przebieg wybranych wskaźników biometeorologicznych w różnych masach powietrza w Bydgoszczy
Daily course of chosen biometeorological indices in different air masses in Bydgoszcz
The aim of the paper was to investigate the daily course of chosen biometeorological indices in different air masses in Bydgoszcz in January and July. On the basis of the data collected from 2002 to 2007 by automatic meteorological station, situated in the west side of Bydgoszcz, STI (Subjective Temperature Index), PhS (Physiological Strain), Iclp (Insulation Predicted) and MHR (Accepted level of physical activity) was calculated. Six kinds of air masses were assumed: arctic air (PA), maritime polar air (PPm), old–maritime polar air (PPms), warm–maritime polar air (PPmc), continental polar air (PPk) and tropical air (PZ).
Key words: biometeorology, biometeorological indices, daily course, air masses, Bydgoszcz.
M. Bąkowska, M. Więcław str. 53
Zmienność fauny bentosowej w systemie rzeczno–jeziornym w aspekcie zróżnicowania warunków siedliskowych
VARIABILITY OF MACROZOOBENTHOS IN A RIVER–LAKE SYSTEM IN ASPECT OF HABITATS DIFFERENTIATION
This paper presents the results of a two–year study (2006–2007) on qualitative and quantitative research of macrozoobenthos, especially a spatial variability and domination structure in the Płociczna River (Drawa National Park). The influence of the physical features of habitats (character of water flow, type of bottom sediment) and the chemical parameters of water on bottom fauna in river–lake system was analyzed. The investigations involved three lentic (upper course of river) and two lotic (lower river) habitats. The long river profile was strongly differentiated – from sections with the laminar flow and sand–silty bottom sediments (station 1–3) to turbulent flow with gravel–stony sediments (station 4–5). A total of 16 groups of macrozoobenthos were identified. Taxa representing Bivalvia, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera belonged to the most frequently occurring organisms. In lower course of river the domination of Bivalvia was stated with Unio tumidus and invasive species Dreissena polymorpha (Pall.). Within the river course the increase of abundance was recorded along with a decrease of Shannon biodiversity index. An analysis of water chemistry indicated a systematic purification of the river in river–lake system, which was reflected in the reduction of mineral components and suspended matter.
Key words: river–lake system, macrozoobenthos, domination structure, biodiversity, habitat, water chemistry
T. Joniak, P. Domek, T. Sobczyński str. 60
mikroorganizmów wskaźnikowych jako element oceny efektywności
higienizacyjnej procesu kompostowania osadów ściekowych
ASSESSMENT OF THE INDICATOR MICROORGANISMS INACTIVATION FOR DETERMINATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOSTING HYGIENIC EFFICIENCY
The aim of the investigation was the analysis of the hygienic efficiency of sewage sludge composting process. The research was conducted in two experimental cycles. The evaluation of composting sufficiency was based on the elimination rate of indicator bacteria isolated from the pile. The total number of bacteria, spore–forming bacteria and fungi was also analyzed. The results of the experiment proved significant influence of the composting process on the indicators population.The coli rods were eliminated from the pile environment after 52 days in the spring cycle, and after 37 days in the second, summer experimental cycle. Enterococci showed lower, than E. coli, suscebility to the inhibitory effect of the composting process and were totally inactivated only in the upper and central parts of the windrow during the summer cycle. The total number of bacteria was constant during the process and remained at the level 106 – 108 cfu·g–1. The population of spore–forming bacteria was not affected by the pile environment and ranged between 104 – 106 cfu·g–1. The number odf fungi decreased during the process to 101 – 102 cfu·g–1.
Key words: Escherichia coli, enterococci, sewage sludge, composting, indicator microorganisms
J. Bauza–Kaszewska, Z. Paluszak str. 65
Zawartość Cs–137 w wybranych ekosystemach leśnych w Polsce
CS–137 CONTENT IN GIVEN ECOSYSTEM FOREST IN POLAND
In the paper the results Cs–137 at some region of Poland were presented. As bioindicator Cs–137 content can one to involve the spruce needles, dwarf mountain pine, mosses, lichens and mushrooms.
The concentration of Cs–137 were determined by mean layer of AMP (phosphoromolibdate ammonium).
The samples were collected near town Siedlce. Cs–137 contents in mosses and lichens changed from 3,4 Bq/kg to 343 Bq/kg and from 3,6 Bq/kg to 174 Bq/kg. In the period of investigation fallout of Cs–137 was equal 74 Bq/m2mounth in Tatra Mountains and at Karkonosze Mountain likely about 82 Bq/m2mounth. The average Cs–137 radioactivity in mushrooms, mosses, lichens were different in relation to their species. The average Cs–137 contents was higher of altitude place site. Moreover on the mountain areas Cs–137 radioactivity was higher in comparison to Baltic Region.
Key words: Cs–137, radioactivity, spruce needles, dwarf mountain pine, lichens, mosses, mushrooms
J. Kwapuliński, A. Fischer, E. Królak, D. Grieger, M. Surma str. 70
wybranych czynników fizycznych i chemicznych oraz rodzaju
kompostowanych bioodpadów na rozwój i liczebność grzybów pleśniowych
INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND THE KIND OF COMPOSTING BIOWASTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE NUMBER OD MOULD FUNGI
The paper presents microbiological the sewage sludge characteristics from the sewage treatment plant, in control conditions with biowastes (straw, sawdust, bark, hemp). In experiment the material was mixed in the appropriate weight proportions and located in bioreactor chambers with the constant air flow. The performed composting process aimed at the determination of the developement dynamics of mesophilic and thermophilic fungi (mould) in sewage sludge, composted with different additions in a cybernetic bioreactor. Compost samples were taken for laboratory analysis with reference to the same temperature value. Microbiological analysis were carried out on selective medium using the plate method.
It was estimated that the composition of compost interact with the number of mesophilic and thermophilic fungi while composting process. Existance of relation between the decrease of microorganisms number and increase of T and pH of composts.
Key words: fungi, sewage sludge, biowastes, compost, bioreactor
A. Wolna–Maruwka str. 75
Rola parametrów biotycznych i abiotycznych w ocenie stanu ekologicznego jezior Ziemi Lubuskiej
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF LUBUSKIE REGION LAKES
In the years 2002–2005 30 lakes of varied morphometric features were investigated on the area of Lubuskie Lakeland (mid–Western Poland). The aim of the study was to recognize the applicability of selected biological and habitat traits for the assessment of the ecological status of lakes, as well as to characterize the importance of interrelations between the individual elements of the lake ecosystems. In each lake the basic habitat traits and phytocoenotic diversity of vegetation, as well as the phytoplankton biomass, were characterized. The results show that in some particular lakes the potential ecological status may be more influenced by the intrabiocoenotic relationships than individual elements of the lake ecosystems.
Key words: ecological status, lakes, biotic and abiotic parameters, Lubuskie Region
A. Pukacz, M. Pełechaty, A. Pełechata str. 81