Weryfikacja naprawy powypadkowej, jako element wspomagania procesów decyzyjnych w kierowaniu pojazdów do likwidacji i recyklingu
THE VERIFICATION OF POST-ACCIDENT REPAIR, AS THE ELEMENT OF SUPPORTING DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES IN POINTING VEHICLES DISPOSABLE AND THE RECYCLING
In the article a problem of inserting vehicles after improperly conducted post-accident repairs into the new use was taken which should be directed disposable and of the recycling. The problem was characterised relating to the structure of a car park in Poland and of effective laws and regulations in inspections of vehicles after the communicative damage in the context of their liquidation. The article contains the proposal of methods of the verification of repair of cars rebuilt after the total damage which are unprofitable economically and imported from foreign countries, for practicing in the course of examinations of the technical condition of vehicles. In the study a substantial role was also signalled to the station of the inspection of vehicles in the process of pointing cars disposable and the recycling as well as evaluation criteria of the applicability of the inspected vehicle and a necessary equipment were shown. The adopted criterion of costs of the proposed equipment isn’t going beyond possibilities of applying the inspection of vehicles in stations what is supporting putting them into practice. Increasing the amounts of eliminated vehicles is a purpose of cars suggested in the paper of examinations verifying repair, and the recycling constitutes causing acting, that remains after directed vehicles disposable won’t be thrown away to garbage dumps, but will be again used. However the more effective elimination of improperly repaired vehicles in particular from the group of the total damage would also be advantageous for the station of disassembly of vehicles, of plants of the recycling and would contribute to the secondary development of using applied materials for construction of vehicles by increasing the amount of driven cars disposable and the development of the entire sector of this field of economics.
Key words: liquidation, recycling of cars, verification of post-accident repair
P. Aleksandrowicz str. 43
Występowanie pierwiastków i substancji biologicznie czynnych w Białoporku brzozowym
PRESENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND SUBSTANCES IN BIRCH POLYPORE
Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst from the family Fomitopsidaceae is a common polyporous fungus, growing exclusively on weakened birch trees (Betula pendula Roth) and birch wood. The chemical compounds of birch polypore include, among others, polyporenic acids A, B and C, free sugars (mannitol, trehalose), fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic), vitamins (ascorbic acid), carotenoids (b-carotene, lycopene), a-, b-, g-, d-tocopherols, and flavonoids. Previous studies into the activity of birch polypore extracts have shown their anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-cancerous activity.
Two mushrooms of birch polypore collected from a living yet shrivelling tree and a completely dead one were analysed. The content of micro- and macro elements was determined by the ICP-OES method, in addition to the total of polyphenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. It was correctly anticipated that the content of the polyphenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the extract from the mushroom collected from the living birch would be greater, while the content of the elements would differ.
Key words: Piptoporus betulinus, polyphenolic compounds, elemental substances, antioxidant activity
M. Szymański, A. Olszewska, A. Szymański str. 53
Wpływ stopnia rozdrobnienia i metody parzenia na ekstrahowalność cukrów z kawy palonej
The effect of grinding and brewing methods on the extractability of sugars from roasted coffee
Useful features of coffee infusions are seen as the resultant sensory and functional characteristics. The features of these is determined by both the inherent qualities of coffee as well as the method of its preparation for consumption. The study investigated the degree of impact of fragmentation and methods of brewing on the extractability of sugars in roasted coffee infusions. The test material was divided into five fractions differing in particle size. Evaluated infusions obtained using the traditional method and using the machine overflow. We observed a significant increase of sugars extractability with increasing fineness of the coffee. The use of the machine overflow increases the extractability of water-soluble constituents of roasted coffee as compared to the traditional method. The degree of fragmentation and brewing method can significantly affect the performance of the sensory and functional infusions of roasted coffee.
Key words: coffee extract, coffee sensory properties, coffee functional properties, traditional coffee brewing, machine overflow
A. Ocieczek, K. Kłopotek str. 59
Bezpieczeństwo biogazowni rolniczej
SAFETY OF AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT
Operation and service of agricultural biogas plant involve a number of guidelines, which must be respected and know, to properly and safely direct production. Presented emergency situations that can occur on a biogas plant, the effects and consequences associated with them.
Key words: biogas, biogas plant, bio power station, renewable energy sources, methane fermentation
P. Wawer str. 64
Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on lithium–zinc ferrites with a spinel structure
UTLENIANIE KATALITYCZNE MONOTLENKU WĘGLA NA FERRYTACH LITOWO-CYNKOWYCH O STRUKTURZE SPINELOWEJ
Zbadano aktywność katalityczną ferrytów Li–Zn o składzie chemicznym ZnyLi0,5-0,5yFe2,5-0,5yO4 w utlenianiu monotlenku węgla. Katalizatory zostały scharakteryzowane przy pomocy dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej, wartości powierzchni właściwej, aktywność katalityczną oraz pomiary saturacji magnetycznej. Dane XRD wykazały, że Li–Zn ferryty posiadające strukturę spinelową zostały uzyskane we wszystkich próbkach. Saturacja magnetyczna wzrasta wraz ze wzrostem zawartości cynku do y=0.4 a zatem maleje. Oksydację katalityczną monotlenku węgla przeprowadzono w temperaturach 673, 773 oraz 873 К w układzie przepływowym. Wyniki uzyskane wskazują, że aktywność katalizatorów w dyżym stopniu zależy od struktury spinelowej, powstającej na skutek reakcji pomiędzy Fe2O3, ZnO oraz Li2O. Zbadano zależność aktywności katalitycznej od składu chemicznego katalizatorów. Mechanizm oddziaływania CO z adsorbowanym tlenem zbadano za pomocą modelu antystruktury.
Słowa kluczowe: monotlenek węgla, spinele, ferryt litowo-cynkowy, aktywność katalityczna, antystruktura
T. Tatarchuk str. 70
Stan agroturystycznej bazy noclegowej na kujawsko–pomorskiej wsi
SATATUS OF AGRITOURISM ACCOMODATION BASE FOR KUYAVIAN–POMERANIAN VILLAGE
The main type of accommodation in the agritourism farms Kuyavian–Pomeranian is the guest room. Studies have shown that rooms for 2 and 3–bed (respectively 40.7% and 37.8% lodging) are mainly provided for tourists. A total sum of rooms offered by farms was 1415 with 4423 places for tourists. One household had an average of 13.0 beds and a little more than 4 rooms (4.3), which indicates that the majority of the rooms are exempt from taxation. The study achieved a good indicator of sanitary facilities that accrue to one room accommodations, namely 1.3. Agritourism services are provided throughout the year in 71.2% hosts. Others restrict renting rooms to a specific part of the year. Most of hosts offer their services between May and November.
Key words: accommodation base, guest room, agritourism product
J. Cichowska str.76