Dozowanie roztworów likworowych
DOSING OF LIQUOR SOLUTIONS
The following article presents ways of dosing liquor solutions and equipment which is used to this. Explains process complexity and coming from that difficulties. Basing on conducted studies it can be stated that there is possibility of production liquor pralines with using available feeder. However necessary will be to increase its tightness and make pressure regulation of dosing liquor. Handmade works which concerned making of liquor pralines shows that there is a relationship between intensity of dosing and quality of sugar crust.
Key words: dosing, feeder, liquor pralines, liquor solution
S. Bujnowski, A. Gospodarek, R. Wocianiec str. 47
Zmiany fitocenoz grądowych w okolicach Zielonej Góry w ostatnich 30. latach
CHANGES IN THE OAK–HORNBEAM FORESTS PHYTOCOENOSES IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF ZIELONA GÓRA IN THE LAST 30 YEARS
Afforestration rate of Ziemia Lubuska is almost 50%, but deciduous forests harmonious with their habitat provide only about 10%. There was examined the diversification of oak–hornbeam forests in two forest complexes in surroundings of Zielona Góra. To determine the dynamic tendencies in the area of the oak–hornbeam forests phytocoenoses were compared the present data with the historical materials (60 phytosociological records). To that record–sheets were used the same number of phytosociological records from the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s of the last century and present (2009, 2010). The degeneration process is progressing in the area of analyzed patches. There are observed signs of apophytisation, geranietyzation, fruticetization and neophytization except for blurring internal diversification of the complex. The participation of typical forest species and the systematic value of the group of species from the Querco–Fagetea class is decreasing. In the more transformed oak–hornbeam forests located on the outskirts of Zielona Góra the number of Artemisietea edificators and taxons of foreign origin is increasing. In the former nature reserve Zatonie analyzed patches characterize by changes in participation of particular forming stand species, significant increase of degrees of Braun–Blanquet scale, shrubs cover factors and withdrawing of Artemisietea vulgaris edificators together with decrease of systematic value for this group.
Key words: Ziemia Lubuska, Galio sylvatici–Carpinetum (R. Tx. 1937) Oberd. 1957, forms of degeneration, changes in time, floristic composition and systematic structure of association
R. Hoffmann, H. Ratyńska str. 51
Zastosowanie koagulantów i flokulantów w procesie oczyszczania odcieku pofermentacyjnego
USING COAGULANTS AND FLOCCULANTS IN TREATING PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC SUPERNATANT
In this paper results of own research are shown. Researches show using of coagulants and flocculants in different doses to treat supernatant after anaerobic co–digestion of sewage sludge, organic fraction of municipal wastes and pig wastes. It was also reported the use of Fenton reaction with other reactants.
Key words: supernatant, coagulation, flocculation, struvite
S. Borowski, P. Kubacki str. 60
Właściwości grzybobójcze środków dezynfekcyjnych i biopreparatów wobec Mycogone perniciosa – sprawcy białej zgnilizny pieczarek
FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND BIOPREPARATIONS AGAINST MYCOGONE PERNICIOSA – THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF WET BUBBLE OF WHITE BUTTON MUSHROOMS
This study estimated the fungicidal activity of biopreparations Effective Microorganisms and disinfectants based on periacetic acid against the fungus Mycogone perniciosa causing wet bubble disease of white button mushrooms. Analyses were performed under in vitro conditions on the PDA medium to which preparations at proper concentrations were added and then the fungi inoculum was inoculated. The pathogen sensitivity was determined based on the degree of inhibition of the mycelium growth on 5 and 10 day of incubation. A pot experiment was also established where the efficacy of Lerasept Spezial in eliminating M. perniciosa in inoculated casing soil was tested. The study indicated strong antifungal properties of the preparations EM–5 and EM–A, both in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/cm3 of the medium they caused the complete inhibition of the pathogen growth. In the case of chemical preparations, a high effectiveness in limiting the fungal growth was obtained already at a concentration of 0.8% of Agrosteril and 0.2% of Lerasept Spezial. The use of higher concentrations of disinfectants resulted in the complete vanishing of the mycelium on the medium. In contrast, in the pot experiment for Lerasept Spezial a high effectiveness in eliminating M. perniciosa was recorded only at the highest tested concentration of 3%.
Key words: disinfectants, biofungicides, Mycogone perniciosa, wet bubble of white button mushrooms
B. Breza–Boruta, Z. Paluszak str. 65
An examination of the level of phosphorus in the soil as an indicator of human activity in prehistory at archaeological site no. 15a in Biskupin
BADANIA POZIOMU FOSFORU W GLEBIE JAKO WSKAŹNIKA DZIAŁALNOŚCI CZŁOWIEKA W PRADZIEJACH NA STANOWISKU ARCHEOLOGICZNYM NR 15A W BISKUPINIE
Podczas prowadzenia archeologicznych badań wykopaliskowych na wielokulturowym stanowisku nr 15a w Biskupinie, pobrano próbki ziemi w celu oznaczenia poziomu fosforu w glebie. Próbki pobrano z dwóch warstw mechanicznych z obszaru o powierzchni ok. 13 arów. Do analiz ilościowych wybrano metodę fosforomolibdenową opierającą się na reakcji jonów ortofosforanowych z czterohydratem heptamolibednianu amonu przy λanal.= 700 nm. Na podstawie oceny statystycznej wyników stwierdzono, że wyniki w zastosowanej metodzie charakteryzują się dużą precyzją. Zawartość fosforu w badanych próbkach gleby ze stanowiska archeologicznego wykazują, że w pierwszej warstwie mechanicznej jest bardzo wysoka CP2O5±S w granicach od 126,01 ±13,59[mg P2O5/100g gleby] do 193,48 ±0,52 [mg P2O5/100g gleby]; natomiast w warstwie drugiej jest na niskim poziomie w zakresie stężeń 6,29±0,99 [mg P2O5/100g gleby] do 33,79±0,00[mg P2O5/100g gleby]. W jednym miejscu w obrębie drugiej warstwy kulturowej zaobserwowano wysoką zawartość 109,79±19,67[mg P2O5/100g gleby].Wyniki wskazują na dobrą korelację poziomu fosforu jako wskaźnika w tych badaniach archeologicznych.
Słowa kluczowe: stanowisko archeologiczne, fosfor – wskaźnik, statystyka
A. Matłoka, J. Karliński–Kociuba, Ł. Pilaczyński, M. Fejfer, S. Nowaczyk, J. Siepak str. 71
Wybrane podstawy zużywania energii w przetwórstwie tworzyw polimerowych
SELECTED BASE ADMINISTER OF ENERGY RESOURCES IN THE POLYMER PLASTICS PROCESSING
Fundamentals of energy resources administer in the Polish polymer plastics processing industry are not quite all known and used. It is noted, however, increasingly higher level of interest in these issues in light of rising energy prices and the need to reduce production costs and EU regulations. Administer of energy resources in the processing may be based primarily on the measurements, their estimation, optimization, prediction, and the use of modern technology solutions that contribute to minimizing energy consumption. Presentation of the content of this article describes and illustrates techniques. Presentation of the content of this article contains and illustrates elements of energy resources administer technology which could be successfully applied in enterprises engaged in processing plastics and diverse for polymer processing technology.
Key words: administration, energy resources, process load, plastics processing
K. Pepliński str. 80
Efektywność membranowej oczyszczalni ścieków komunalnych w zmiennych warunkach eksploatacji
EFFICIENCY OF MEMBRANE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN VARIABLE CONDITIONS
The technology of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is the combination of biodegradation treatment by activated sludge with liquid/solid separation by porous membranes. The use of membrane technology in wastewater treatment is a pioneering solution in Poland. Due to effective ultrafiltration, the MBR effectively produces a clarified and substantially disinfected effluent. This effect is especially needed in the seasonal and tourist areas where a very high and irregularity load of sewage treatment plant is observed. Sewage treatment plant of Rowy (near Ustka) is an example of modernization, which allows for increase the capacity of water treatment plant and the effects of their treatment without increasing the biological reactors.
Key words: MBR, Membrane Biological Reactor, wastewater treatment, hollow fiber, WWTP
K. Piaskowski str. 84
Oznaczanie bromu w węglach energetycznych i w popiołach z ich spalania
DETERMINATION OF BROMINE IN ENERGY COALS AND IN ASHES FROM THEIR COMBUSTION
Two new methods for the determination of bromine in coal and coal ash using wavelength dispersive X–ray fluorescence spectrometry technique WDXRF have been elaborated. Sample preparation procedures of coal and ash for X–ray analysis and optimal instrument measurement conditions are presented in the paper. Matrix effects correction methods used at the stage of creating calibration curves are also discussed. Validation of both methods carried out on the basis of the reference materials has shown their high accuracy and reproducibility of the obtained results. Estimated on the basis of validation measurements absolute uncertainties for the determination of bromine in coal and coal ash are 0.65 µg/g and 0.23 µg/g respectively. Calculated relative uncertainties expressed as a percentage have the values 6.8% and 6.2% respectively. Confirmed high accuracy of the elaborated methods, as well as the ease of test sample preparation and short analysis time, justify their use in monitoring programmes of emissions of bromine to the atmosphere during the combustion of energy coal.
Key words: Determination of bromine, New method, WDXRF technique, Coal, Coal ash
M. Stempin, J. Kwapuliński str. 92
Połowy wędkarskie metodą spławikową z dolnego biegu rzeki Brdy
FLOAT ANGLING FROM THE LOWER REACHES OF BRDA RIVER
The work analyses qualitative and quantitative composition of fish caught with one float fishing rod, using entice and four different baits (fly larvae, chironomidae larvae, wheat and corn grains). The fish were caught from the Brda River within the city of Bydgoszcz in the period from 8 May to 21 June 2014. Fishing for a total of 18 days (2 hours per day). Four chosen baits were used every day, changed every 30 minutes. All fish caught were let out in the place of catching after taking measurements and weighing. 10 species of fish were noted in the catches from the Brda River, including species with high environmental requirements, such as: brown trout and grayling. A total of 512 fish were caught during 18 days of angling with a total weight of 46.8kg, of which 54% of the total number of fish and 58% of the total weight were specimen of improper size or in protection period, this was influenced mainly by vimba. Out of the 4 baits used animal ones (fly and chironomidae larvae) were the most effective. Wheat grains were more effective than corn grains. According to the regulations of the Polish Angling Association the dominating species was the roach, there was also a large share of white bream, and 13 fish with a total weight of 1.1kg was caught daily during the 2 hours of fishing.
Key words: float angling, fishing pressure, baits, Brda River
P. Tykwinska, J. Dąbrowski str. 99
Analiza rozdrobnienia i separacji substratów biogazowni na zużywanie się rotorów rotacyjnych pomp wyporowych
THE IMPACT OF FRAGMENTATION AND SEPARATION THE BIOGAS PLANT SUBSTRATES TO EMERGENCY WEAR PARTS OF ROTARY PUMP
The proposed conditions of high quality of biogas, effective production and energy conversion an biogas plant depend of efficiency the technological system.
Continuous movement of the substrates constituting the propellant specifies the first of a number of variables affecting the performance of the system. Rotary pump allow on movement relation of fermentation substrates. Analyzed the use of shredding and separation solids subsystems.
Key words: biogas plant, shredding, separation, optimization
P. Wawer str. 103