Problemy w usuwaniu azotu amonowego ze ścieków i wód osadowych w oczyszczalni ścieków komunalnych
AMMONIA NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM SEWAGE AND LIQUID SLUDGE IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROBLEMS
Nitrogen removal from sewage is a frequent problem of municipal wastewater treatment plant due to nitrifying bacteria sensitivity. Nitrogen oxidation efficiency is disturbing by temperature fluctuation, sewage quality, operating problems of activated sludge process and liquid sludge. This waters from sludge digestion are important source of ammonia nitrogen but their quality and amount are very inconstancy. The paper presents efficiency of nitrogen removal from sewage in Wastewater Treatment Plant “Jamno” in 2007. Author showed influence of selected parameters on nitrification and determined quantity of ammonia nitrogen load generated at sewage sludge treatment area, recycled to biological treatment plant.
Key words: ammonia nitrogen, wastewater treatment, liquid sludge, activated sludge tank, nitrification.
K. Piaskowski str. 91
Przyszłość rolnictwa ekologicznego w Polsce na tle Unii Europejskiej
THE FUTURE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO THE EUROPEAN UNION
The aim of this thesis is to present issues relating to ecological agriculture in Poland and the possibilities of its future development. The analysis has been carried out with the use of statistical data taken from resources drawn up by the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the Agricultural and Food Quality Inspection (IJHARS) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The analysed statistical data related to farms producing with the use of ecological methods in Poland, in comparison to other member states of the European Union. The analysis of the data shows that the conditions for the production performed with ecological methods are favourable in Poland, especially along its eastern border. The integration with the European Union created new opportunities for development in this sector of the food economy. The dynamic growth in ecological farms was triggered off by subsidies from the European Union. The provisions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development relating to the expansion of the ecological agriculture in Poland until 2013 are very optimistic.
Key words: ecological agriculture, ecological production, sustainable development
A. Marciniuk–Kluska, A. Bombik str. 97
Zawartość metali ciężkich w glebach leśnych obszaru międzyrzecza Warty i Noteci
HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN FOREST SOILS FROM THE INTERFLUVIAL TERRAIN BETWEEN WARTA AND NOTEĆ RIVERS
This paper reports results of investigation of heavy metals concentrations in soil samples collected from forest soils at the depths of 0.3 and 2.0 m, in the interfluvial terrain between the rivers Warta and Noteć The 142 samples were collected from evenly distributed sites along a 20 km forest section unspoiled by human activity. The results may be useful as geochemical background of heavy metal concentration in the natural forests unpolluted soils.
Key words: heavy metals, soil, sands, atomic absorption spectrometry
A. Dostatni, M. Troć, A. Wojtasik, P. Łęcki str. 104
Bilans ekonomiczny produkcji biopaliwa rzepakowego (biodiesla) w indywidualnym gospodarstwie rolnym
ECONOMIC BALANCE OF RAPESEED BIOFUEL PRODUCTION CYCLE IN AN INDIVIDUAL FARMSTEAD
From a chemical point of view, biodiesel is a mixture of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid sources. Environmentally, biodiesel is biodegradable, non–toxic, and its utilization reduces most major engine exhaust emissions. Operationally, it performs very similar to low sulfur diesel in terms of power, torque, and fuel economy. Biodiesel also offers improved lubricity characteristics compared to conventional diesel fuel. The Biodiesel industry is still young and relatively small – as it grows to a larger scale and an infrastructure is developed, the costs of producing and marketing biodiesel may decrease. A key to a bright future for Biodiesel is finding an inexpensive production technology which can be used by farmers. Cost benefits scenario will depend on various factors such as area of rape plantation, the length of maturing period and rapeseed yield, as well as raw oil yield during oil extraction and the estrification process effectiveness.
Key words: biofuels, economic analysis, rapeseed, renewable energy sources
E. Radziemska, P. Meler, K. Ciunel str. 109
Występowanie wybranych leków w wodzie Czarnej Przemszy
THE CONTENTS OF SOME DRUGS IN SURFACE WATER OF CZARNA PRZEMSZA
In the paper the results of concentration caffeine, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, diclofenac and naproxen in surface water of Czarna Przemsza River were presented. The investigations presented that the concentration of some drugs changes with situation and receive time. The study indicated that great city agglomeration may be the major sources concentrations medicines in surface water.
Key words: drugs, surface water, contamination
J. Rzepa, D. Kmak–Kapusta, J. Kwapuliński str. 114
Charakterystyka okresu wegetatywnego w rejonie Bydgoszczy w latach 1949-2008
CHARACTERISTIC OF A GROWING SEASON VARIABILITY IN THE REGION OF BYDGOSZCZ IN YEARS 1949–2008
The study is a climatological characteristic of a growing season variability in the region of Bydgoszcz. The work is based on 60–year period of a constant air temperature measurements taken in the Research Centre of the Faculty of Agriculture UTP, in Mochełek (φ=53o13’, λ=17o51’, h=98,5 m a.s.l.). Diurnal air temperature was the fundamental element to estimate the date of beginning, end and the duration of growing season using an arithmetic method and the equations by Gumiński. The temperature of 5,0oC was a termal level of the growing season.
It was found that the growing season in the region of Bydgoszcz begins on the 30th of March and lasts 219 days untill the 3rd of November. A great instability of growing season factors was confirmed during the analized period, which is typical for the moderate and transition climate in Poland. Therefore, in 40% of years (one per 2,5 year ) the mean conditions of growing season can be expected. For the rest of the time some deviations from the climatological standard norm were proved. However, the date of beginning is more instable compared to the date of its end. It was ascertained that during the last 60–year period there were no statistically confirmed changes of the duration, the date of beginning and the date of end of growing season in the region of Bydgoszcz.
Key words: growing period, region of Bydgoszcz, climatological standard norm, climate variability, climatic changes
J. Żarski, S. Dudek, R. Kuśmierek–Tomaszewska, D. Banaszewska str. 120
stosowania reaktorów biochemicznych w procesach oczyszczania ścieków na
przykładzie komory osadu czynnego – obliczenia projektowe
APPLICATION OF THE BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS IN THE WASTE TREATMENT PROCESSES – ACTIVE DEPOSIT CHAMBER, EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS
At work a division and applying bioreactors were discussed, equations of material balance were put together for individual bioreactors. Next was one of methods of biological cleaning waste discussed – method of active deposit. For approachable in the literature of data design calculations were carried out for the chamber of active deposit for the different age of active deposit.
Key words: waste cleaning, bioreactors, active deposit chamber, calculating example
S. Peryt–Stawiarska, A. Koncewicz str 127