Stan, zagrożenia i ochrona ekosystemu Morza Bałtyckiego
ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS, THREATS AND PROTECTION OF THE BALTIC SEA ECOSYSTEM
Owing to its hydrography and bottom topography as well as strong anthropogenic pressure, the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea is extremely susceptible to degradation. The Baltic’s connection with the Atlantic is complex, therefore oceanic effects, evident as inflows of saline and well–oxygenated water, are usually weak. The suite of environmental threats to the Baltic includes increased concentrations of nutrients leading to eutrophication. This phenomenon is manifested by phytoplankton blooms. Particularly noteworthy are the summer cyanobacterial blooms as they affect the shores important for tourism and recreation, and enhance oxygen deficiency in the near–bottom water of the Baltic deeps. Degradation effects include also inputs, and maintenance, of pollutants. The most important of those include chloroorganics (DDT, PCBs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy (trace) metals. A potential threat is posed also by the appearance of non–indigenous species. The list of alien species in the Baltic Sea becomes extended almost every year, a total of 98 non–indigenous species being recorded in the Baltic in the first decade of the 21st century (beginning from the earliest records dating back to the 12th century). The presence of some alien species, e.g., the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) or the predatory waterflea (Cercopages pengoi) may be both an ecological and economic issue. Improvement of the environmental status of the Baltic Sea and reduction of the present threats is in the focus of attention of a number of inter– and non–governmental initiatives and actions. Their success, although expected to be achieved in the future, are beginning to be perceived already today.
Key words: Baltic Sea, eutrophication, algal blooms, invasive species, HELCOM
T. Radziejewska, R. Staniszewski str. 135
Ocena osadów ściekowych, pomiotu kurzego oraz gnojowicy z hodowli trzody chlewnej jako substratów w procesie kofermentacji
ASSESSMENT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE, POULTRY AND PIG MANURE AS SUBSTRATES
IN CO–DIGESTION PROCESS
Sewage sludge, poultry and pig manure were analyzed in order to determine their suitability for anaerobic digestion. Physical–chemical composition (total and organic solids, total nitrogen and phosphorous) and the content of particular metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb) were investigated. Separate anaerobic digestion of all analyzed substrates is less efficient and not always economically justified. Sewage sludge is susceptible to changes of the digestion process parameters. Poultry and pig manure are characterized by high content of ammonium nitrogen, which can inhibit the digestion performance and biogas production, moreover, poultry manure requires dilution prior digestion due to the high content of total solids. The anaerobic co–digestion of all analyzed substrates enables the process optimization and reduces the negative impact of individual substrates.
Key words: sewage sludge, poultry manure, pig manure, co–digestion
J. Domański, S. Borowski str. 143
Problem recyklingu poliuretanów spienionych freonami
THE PROBLEM OF RECYCLING POLYURETHANE FOAMED CHLOROFLUOROCARBON
It is presented the problem of recycling of polyurethane foam and were included the idea of identification chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) included in polyurethane foam. Identification of the CFC is a necessary step in waste recycling of polyurethane foam and recovery of CFC as compounds harmful to the atmosphere. The presented method of distinguishing the polyurethanes containing CFC is inexpensive and feasible in a company whose business profile includes an collection and recycling of electronic and electrical engineering.
Key words: waste, polyurethane foam, chlorofluorocarbon
J. Pach str. 148
Proces odparowania rozpuszczalnika jako istotny etap procedury przygotowania próbek środowiskowych do oznaczania wybranych zanieczyszczeń organicznych
SOLVENT EVAPORATION AS AN IMPORTANT STEP IN SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD PRIOR TO ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIC POLLUTANTS ANALYSIS
In many sample preparation methods the process of a solvent evaporation is usually included. The purpose is to increase the analytes’ concentration in the sample. This step could be performed in many ways i.e.: using the rotavapor, Kuderna–Danish apparatus and in a gentle stream of ambient gas or using commercially available automated systems. Another aim of the solvent evaporation is to make the sample (extract) compatible with the clean up technique or with the final analysis method. In this article the characteristics of various solvent evaporation techniques were presented. Advantages and disadvantages of various solvent evaporation methods were discussed. The sources of errors during solvent evaporation were described and the possible methods of the errors elimination were proposed. One of the solution is the addition of a high boiling point solvent (keeper) during the evaporation step. Repeatability of the solvent evaporation process is a necessary condition to get reasonable final results.
Key words: sample preparation, environmental pollutants analysis, solvent evaporation, solvent exchange, keeper
H. Dąbrowska, Ł. Dąbrowski str. 153
Ocena wartości paszowej runi z łąk użytkowanych według zaleceń programów rolnośrodowiskowych
ASSESSMENT OF FORAGE SWARD VALUE FROM MEADOWS UTILIZED ACCORDING TO THE AGRI–ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM RECOMMENDATIONS
Studies, conducted to evaluate the quality and yielding of meadows utilized according to agri–environment program guidelines for double–cut, semi–natural meadows (variant P01b), were carried out between 2006 and 2009 and covered and area of 158 ha of meadows located on hydrogenic soils located within the central part of the Bydgoszcz Canal Valley. 109 species of vascular plants comprising the agricultural yield were identified, including 19 grass species, 7 papilionaceus species, 21 species from the sage and rush family as well as 65 species from other botanical groups, primarily dicotyledonous, among those two protected species: Ostericum palustre and Dactylorhiza incarnata. Grasses comprised and average of 48% of the sward, papilionaceus slightly above 1%, sage and rush 21% and the remaining species 30% of the sward. High participation of plants of low usefulness value contributed to the fact that the average synthetic indicators of sward quality measured as usefulness value numbers were in the lower boarders of a low quality sward. Chemical analysis indicated a very low amount of total protein, excessive amount of crude fiber, low amount of phosphorus and an extremely low amount of potassium. These results indicate that the first cut was harvested too late, allowing the soil to be depleted of phosphorus and potassium. The sward of the second cut was characterized by higher fodder values, particularly by higher amount of total protein and lower amount of crude fiber. Despite the hydrogenic nature of the studied meadows, the amount and frequency of rainfall during the vegetative season had a significant impact on the yield. The average yield of 3,54 t•ha–1 combined with its low quality result in the lack of interest in the fodder aspect of meadow utilization. Instead these meadows are used to gain funding from the agri–environment programs resources.
Key words: meadows, agri–environmental programs, botanical composition, field, quality of sward
R. Dembek, R. Łyszczarz str. 162
Ocena efektywności ochrony czynnej w rezerwacie Polana Siwica
EVALUATION OF THE ACTIVE CONSERVATION EFFECTIVENESS IN SIWICA GLADE RESERVE (BOLIMOWSKI LANDSCAPE PARK)
Siwica Glade Reserve was established in 1998 for the protection of plant cover and fauna in the mid–forest clearings of Bolimowski Landscape Park. It is an important reservoir of biodiversity for Central Poland. An active conservation of nature has been continued for thirteen years there. However, it has been implemented without any plan, which reduced its effectiveness. Despite this, condition of meadows and rushes of Siwica Glade was retained and even improved thanks to active conservation. It is necessary to develop a document allowing to lead a conservation in accordance to actual needs. Siwica Glade can and should become an important testing ground for research in the effectiveness of conservation methods for meadow ecosystems. Presently studies in the Siwica Glade Reserve are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of active conservation implemented there.
Key words: Siwica Glade Reserve, meadow ecosystems, effectiveness of conservation, biodiversity, secondary succesion
A. Traut–Seliga str. 170
Postawy studentów wobec odpowiedzialności firm za środowisko
ATTITUDES OF STUDENTS TOWARD ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY
Most of the economic actions cause environmental consequences because they take place in the natural surroundings. In the commercial world the degradation of the environment is growing. In order to stop this process the changing of attitudes and behaviours towards the environment is required. Attitudes of the future generation, especially graduated students of technical universities, will decide about the approach of the enterprises to the environment. The paper presents the research into environmental awareness and attitudes of students representing mainly management studies because their decisions will play an important role in reducing negative impact on the environment via environmental responsibility of companies. The results of article point that the tested students are environmentally aware only on the declarative level but their actual attitudes and behaviours do not confirm that. The respondents take mainly the level of salary while choosing the employer. The quantitative and qualitative methods have been used in the research. The Spearman correlation analysis and the Mann–Whitney U test were used for statistical evaluation of the results.
Key words: proecological attitudes, environmental awareness, company.
O. Seroka–Stolka str. 177
Rozwój technologii produkcji, zbioru i przetwarzania roślin energetycznych o zdrewniałych pędach
DEVELOPMENT OF BOTH THE PRODUCTION, HARVESTING AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF ENERGETIC PLANTS WITH LIGNEOUS SPROUTS
In article the agricultural solutions of machines developed in Rzeszow University of Technology and destined to using in small and medium plantations of energetic plants have been presented. The developed machines may be also used in dispersed management of the biomass in small power cogenerational systems. The presented solutions are based on undertaken assumption concerning a design of new technical constructions in presented technology of production of energetic plants with ligneous sprouts. One of the assumption is destination of machines for work in small and medium farms where utilization of productive and expensive machines are uneconomical. The main stages of sludge disposal and fertilizes on energetic plant plantations, their protection, harvest and processing with proposal utilization of new machines and instruments are presented. One of the many conceptual models elaborated was presented relating to harvester for crop and shred ligneous sprout of plants and branches. Elaborated harvester is a machine attached to a farm tractor and power–driven by using power takeoff shaft. This is an optimal constructional solution taking into consideration high cost of mobile harvesters and universality of farm tractor which is a basic source of power drive in small and medium farms produced biomass. To create a virtual model of harvester the Autodesk Inventor software was used. Creation of 3D model of machine was allowed to carried out kinematic and dynamic analysis of mechanisms working. The aim of presented new constructional solutions of machines is facilitation of activities connected with establishing, protection and logging of the biomass particularly plants with ligneous sprouts.
Key words: biomass production, agricultural machines, energetic willow
W. Niemiec, F. Stachowicz, T. Trzepieciński str. 186
Kofermentacja pomiotu kurzego z osadami ściekowymi
CO–DIGESTION OF POULTRY MANURE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE
A study of the anaerobic co–digestion of sewage sludge with poultry manure in a laboratory batch conditions was undertaken. The anaerobic mesophilic digestion was applied for the treatment of primary and waste activated sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Łódź together with poultry manure from non–litter layer farming in Zgierz. It was found that a 20–30% addition of poultry manure (by weight) to the sludge significantly increased the biogas production of over 30% and volatile solids reduction of 8–10 percentage points, in comparison to the experiments with the sludge itself. The co–digestion of that mixture led to yield around 400 dm3 biogas from 1 kg of organic solids, and to obtain the organic solids reduction of almost 50%. However, the more poultry manure was added to the sludge, the larger ammonium nitrogen concentration in supernatant after digestion was measured.
Key words: co–digestion, biogas, sewage sludge, poultry manure, renewable energy
S. Borowski, J. Domański str. 192
Udział przydroży w zachowaniu lokalnej różnorodności gatunkowej na przykładzie dróg powiatowych w Borach Tucholskich
THE ROADSIDE VERGES SHARE IN THE LOCAL SPECIES DIVERSITY ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE TUCHOLA PINEWOODS COUNTY ROADS
The paper presents the results of the floristic research carried out on the roadside verges of the county roads within the borders of Śliwice commune. Roadside verges flora of this area consists of 185 species of vascular plants – more than in the neighbouring biocenoses. The species diversity index ranges from 2 to 2.5 – not much lower than in the meadows. Among the most frequent species to be found: Festuca rubra, Achillea millefolium, Arrhenatherum elatius, Dactylis glomerata, Artemisia vulgaris, Lolium perenne and Elymus repens. Many rare and protected taxa were also present: Frangula alnus, Helichrysum arenarium, Ononis spinosa, Arctostaphylos uva–ursi, Convallaria majalis, Epipactis helleborine, Botrichium lunaria and Botrichium matricariifolium. Intensive forestation and extensive agriculture in the Tuchola Pinewoods contribute to high conservation value of the region. The roadside verges have become specific and unique habitats in the forest landscape. Due to rich flora, large stock of rare and protected species, in addition to high diversity of each investigated plot, the roadside verges have turned into a significant element of the local biodiversity.
Key words: roadside verges, flora, Tuchola Pinewoods, species diversity, rare species
T. Stosik str. 197