Termika i zasolenie wód przybrzeżnych Zatoki Pomorskiej w 2006 i 2007 r.
THERMALS AND SALINITY OF COASTAL WATERS OF THE POMERANIAN BAY IN 2006 AND 2007
The examination of the temperature and the salinity of the waters of Pomerania Bay was carried out in twelve stations, located in the coastal zone from Świnoujście to Darłówek from spring until autumn 2006 and 2007. The fluctuations of parameters in the estuarine zone of Pomeranian Bay were insignificant. The lowest temperatures of water (in the range of 4.5–8.5°C) were observed in October 2006, while the highest temperatures were observed in June 2007 (17.0 – 20.1°C). The salinity of waters was low – within 1.2 to 2.9 PSU.
Key words: Baltic Sea, Pomeranian Bay, coastal zone, temperature, salinity
A.Grzeszczyk–Kowalska, J. C. Chojnacki, M. Raczyńska, S. Machula str. 99
Innowacyjne rozwiązanie konstrukcyjne do zakładania plantacji roślin energetycznych o zdrewniałych pędach
INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTIONAL SOLUTION FOR ESTABLISHING OF PLANTATIONS OF ENERGETIC PLANTS WITH LIGNEOUS SHOOTS
In the article the constructional solutions of machines for production of cuttings and planting of energy plants have been presented. Proposed machines are destined for work in small and medium farms where utilization of existed in market productive and expensive means of production are uneconomical. One of many conceptual elaborated models of machines for planting of energetic plants with ligneous shoots was presented. The developed machine has simple construction and it is aggregated to a farm tractor. This is a constructional solution adapted to mating with a typical farm tractor which is a basic source of power drive in small and medium farms producing biomass. Creation of the 3D model of the machine allowed to carry out kinematic and dynamic analysis of mechanisms working. The unique patented constructional solution is the machine for cuttings production especially of the energy willow which allows receiving cuttings from annual shoots of plants. The machine has a system of circular saws that do not cause existing of edge shredding of cut shoots. The aim of presented new constructional solutions of machines is facilitation of activities connected with establishing of plantations of plants especially with ligneous shoots. Developed machines for mechanization of plantation establishing process of energetic plants fill the gap in technology of energetic plants growing in small and medium plantations.
Key words: agricultural machines, planting of cuttings, energetic willow, cuttings.
W. Niemiec, F. Stachowicz, T. Trzepieciński str. 106
Biotopy i różnorodność gatunkowa Parku Narodowego Jasmund na wyspie Rugia (Niemcy)
BIOTOPES AND BIODIVERSITY OF THE JASMUND NATIONAL PARK ON RUGIA ISLAND (GERMANY)
The Jasmund National Park on Rugia Island covers the Stubnitz forest area, the beach stretching before it including a strip of Baltic waters and an inoperative chalk quarry. The entire area of the park is divided into two zones. The strict protection zone covers 2600 ha while the protected zone covers 403 ha. Chalk was created on Rugia around 90 million years ago in the form of shelf sediments. In the Ice Age the inland ice moved and uplifted chalk deposits and other materials like clay, marl and sand. In this way an elevation was formed that was gradually washed out by Baltic waters. The sediment material contains many fossils which combined come from over 1000 different plant and animal species.
The geological properties of the substratum are one of the most important factors that decide about living conditions. They resulted in the creation of a few characteristic biotopes in this area. One of them is the forest that grows on chalk substratum. Beech woods with a clear dominance of Fagus sylvatica grow there. Depending on the differentiation of settling conditions Acer platanoides, Sorbus torminalis, Taxus baccata, Alnus sp., Fraxinus sp., Ulmus glabra, Acer pseudoplatanus also grow there as well as wild fruit tree species.
The next biotope is peat with a peat layer of over 11 meters. Because of nutritional poverty only a modest number of species inhabit this area. On slightly nutrition richer damp meadows that exist in the neighborhood of the peats, there is a much larger richness of species. The flora of forest undergrowth is much more diverse. Depending on living conditions and the time of the vegetative season, one of the species that can be found there are i.e. Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, A. hepatica, Dentaria bulbifera, Harpagophytum procumbens, Cephalanthera sp., Neottia nidus–avis and Monotropa hypophegea. This great diversity of flora species guarantees adequate living condition for animals. Dama dama, Capreolus capreolus, Sus strofa, Ovis aries musimon, Vulpes vulpes, Meles meles, Mustela putorius, M. nivalis, Martes martes and Nyctereutes procyonoides are one of the examples of species that live there. Inoperative chalk quarries sustain many bat species and among birds Haliaeetus albicilla deserves attention.Glacial relicts like Rana dalmatina, Crenobia alpina or Boloria aquilonaris can be seen there. Halting the economic interference of man in areas belonging to national parks, we allow for the development of nature according to its own laws and mechanisms. Only in this way can we keep these areas in an unchanged state for future generations.
Key words: Baltic Sea, Jasmund, biodiversity, peat bog, beech wood
K. Pawełko str. 112
Bioaerozol wokół oczyszczalni ścieków
MICROCLIMATE IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the air around the sanitary sewage treatment plant. Bioaerosol tests were carried out in around treatment plants around the using microbial air sampler. Samples were taken twice in two periods in the three measuring points. Analysis of results allowed to determine that the air around the object was slightly polluted. Among the identified micoflora identified the presence of mold fungi mainly of the genusAspergillus sp, Penicillium sp, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp.
Key words: treatment plant, bioaerosols, air
B. Nowakowicz–Dębek, H. Krukowski, P. Drążyk, B. Trawińska, Ł. Wlazło, B. Pawłowski, J. Petkiewicz str. 122
Korozja towarzysząca spalaniu biomasy
CORROSION ASSOCIATED TO BIOMASS COMBUSTION
Biomass is a natural fuel used as energy source, therefore it is essential in terms of evironment protection. The total amount of CO2 emited while the burning process equals the amount of CO2 acquired through the process of photosynthesis during the maturation time. It makes the biomass the only renewable coal source that can play a key role on the market . Because of its complex physical and chemical composition, biomass is regarded quite troublesome fuel for both extraction and utilisation. The way of finding its optimal energy use is through the detailed analysis of its composition. Therefore, any work on the furnace adjustment, conditioning low–emission termochemical process, should be based on the analysis of the biomass type and form, as well as a design employing adequate materials and available technologies. This paper discusses the issues resulting from the corrosion accompanying the biomass burning process. The main focus is on the mechanism of its formation and its limiting factors. The paper also lists the main usage risks that the authors came across while burning various types of biomass as well as those that resulted from the data gathered by different research centres.
Key words: burning, biomass, corrosion, ash fusibility, ash composition
M. Janicki, K. Kowalczyk str. 127
Monitorowanie procesu oświetlania powierzchni funkcjonalny
MONITORING OF FUNCTIONAL SURFACE LIGHTING PROCESS – Part I
In the first part of the paper describes the concept and monitoring activities of active lighting, and the state’s proposed technical system variables and performance indicators lit environment.
Key words: monitoring, process efficiency, cognitive control
K. S. Bieliński, J. B. Flizikowski str. 133