Wpływ domieszki etanolu na parametry pracy silnika i zanieczyszczenie środowiska
THE INFLUENCE OF THE ADMIXTURE OF ETHANOL ON THE WORK PARAMETERS THE ENGINE AND THE FOULING OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Obtainment of the information in the range of the proportional type – matter of the mixture of unleaded petrol, is the cardinal contents of this study Pb–95 with the drained ethanol and additions modifying (the originator of the ignition, emulsifier of water, stabilizer of burning, inhibitor of corrosion) to the admission present engine about the ignition sparkle, without the of introducing in him the changes constructional necessities and the changes parameters of the programmer of the arrangement of the injection’s engine – is the cardinal contents of this study.
Key words: combustion engines, alternative fuel, ethanol, partial biases, environment
B. Żółtowski, P. Stanowski str. 209
Łąki „Linice” w Borach Tucholskich – historia, struktura fitocenoz i zagrożenia
THE “LINICE” MEADOWS COMPLEX IN THE TUCHOLA PINEWOODS: HISTORY, STRUCTURE OF PHYTOCOENOSES, AND THREATS
Excessive drainage of wet meadows leads to unfavorable and irreversible soil changes and results in quantitative alternations to the plant cover.
Formerly common, communities of the Calthion alliance typically yield to poor forms of fresh meadows. Attempts at their intensification with insufficient water supply don’t bring positive effects. Many of the meadows got degraded in the Tuchola Pinewood as well.
The natural character of the phytocoenoses can be preserved with subsoil water tricklings, to be observed in the “Linice” meadow complex in the valleys of Śliwiczka and Prusina. The phytocoenoses reported there mainly represent communities of the Calthion alliance: Angelico–Cirsietum oleracei, Scirpetum sylvatici and Caricetum cespitosae. Moreover, the reed beds of Caricetum acutiformis are being formed. Over–drying leads to spreading the Arrhenatheretalia ordo species, while stopping the cultivation leads in a short time to overgrowth by woody species.
Where the moisture level is appropriate, the existing communities are endangered mainly by abandonment of meadows or over–intensification.
Key words: wet meadows, Calthion alliance, Tuchola Pinewood, drainage
T. Stosik, E. Krasicka–Korczyńska str. 217
Zmienność zawartości metali śladowych w osadach fluwialnych środkowego odcinka rzeki Odry po powodzi w 2010 r.
THE VARIABILITY OF TRACE METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS OF THE MIDDLE ODRA RIVER AFTER THE FLOOD IN 2010
During the flooding events, river sediments, which often act like a sink for trace metals, are deposited on the floodplain. Consequently an extra load of metal content may be added to the fluvial sediments. In this study total (mineralized in HNO3), actual available (0.01M CaCl2 extractable) concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc were analyzed in fluvial sediments of the Middle Odra River after the flood in 2010. The sediment samples were collected from surface (0–30 cm) and subsurface (30–60 cm) along four cross–sections characterized by different width (between 44 m and 360 m). Also the physico–chemical properties of sediments were investigated and their influence on trace metals concentrations.
Key words: trace metals, available forms, fluvial sediments, Odra River
A. Ibragimow, B. Walna str. 227
Bezodpadowe i bezemisyjne oczyszczanie spalin z SO2/NOx na przykładzie technologii oczyszczania gazów odlotowych z wykorzystaniem wiązki elektronów (EBFGT)
WASTE–FREE AND EMISSION–FREE EXHAUST GAS TREATMENT SYSTEM OF SO2/NOX EXAMPLE OF TECHNOLOGY GAS TREATMENT USING ELECTRON BEAMS (EBFGT)
Purification of combustion gases polluting the environment is not a new problem, but due to the fact that in recent years are increasing stringency of emission limits on these gases to the atmosphere from the European Union legislation, the intention of the authors is to present the issue.
Therefore, based on the latest Don–hall literature, the authors intend to present in this paper a modern coal combustion technologies for energy, satisfying the conditions: zero harmful emissions and waste. Moreover, the approach will be presented, “the source” – the action ex ante, i.e. the elimination of harmful environmental effects throughout the manufacturing process and useful for management of by–products – waste (value addition).
Work processes satisfying the requirements of zero emissions, zero waste will be discussed on the example of the latest technologies implemented in the Polish power plants, “Kawęczyn near Warsaw” and “Pomorzany – Szczecin”, this product. Chemical processes occurring in the removal of exhaust gases in this process will also be approximated. This paper is a review based on research reports of solid–temperature, which will be discussed in particular the use of electron beam to the waste–less conversion of NOx and SO2 in the final products useful mainly on the basis of teams A.G. Chmielewski and J. Licki. The paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of EBFGT technology. Also will be moved the legal aspect related to the limitations of SO2/NOx emissions into the atmosphere governed by EU legislation. Also will be shown the EU countries which in the past two decades reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. The impact of pollution on plant and animal organisms and the health of man is underlined.
Key words: zero emission technologies and zero waste, emissions of SO2 /NOx and their effects; technology EBFGT, EU Directive emission SO2 /NOx , useful products, advantages and disadvantages of EBFGT
J. Sławiński, A. Matłoka str. 238
Badania nad obecnością metali ciężkich w glebie na terenie ferm świń
RESEARCH OF PRESENCE HEAVY METALS IN SOIL IN AREA OF THE SWINE FARMS
Soil in various areas of the swine farm can be polluted heavy metals, which may cumulate in plants and get into people and animal organism. Research was undertaken to determine the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Mn) in various areas on a swine farm. The samples for tests were collected from the following places: the swine yard, the dung plate – at the distance of 5 and 10 m, and the fattening house – at the distance of 5 and 10 m. The soil samples underwent hot mineralization in concentrated nutric (V) acid and chloric (VII) (perchloric) acid, and then the content of lead, zinc and manganese was established using the method of atomic absorption spectrometry. The results of the analyses were compared with the limit contents of heavy metals established by IUNG and limit numbers for metals in selected countries of the European Union. The highest content of lead was noted in the swine yard. The average content of lead in this area was 29,8 mg . kgˉ¹ and the maximum – 31,0. The established contents of lead in various areas of the swine farm are within the zero degree soil contamination this radical. According the classification, the contents of zinc established by us, qualifies the soil for the zero degree contamination with heavy metals. The same as two others radicals, the highest concentration of manganese has been found in the soil of the swine yard. The average content of this element was 339,8 mg . kgˉ¹ and the maximum – 370,5. In analyzed samples of soil in various farm objects didn’t constitute any significant danger of contamination with heavy metals. The differences were noted in content heavy metals depend from the place collect the samples for the tests. The highest content analyzed radicals were collected in the soil of the swine yard.
Key words: pig farms, soil, heavy metals
B. Szostak str. 247
Wstępna ocena wykorzystania instalacji słonecznych do podgrzewania ciepłej wody użytkowej na przykładzie Ośrodka w Ostoi
A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT–WATER SYSTEM ON AN EXAMPLE OF THE TRAINING AND RESEARCH CENTER FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN OSTOJA
In the paper an assessment of the influence of meteorological conditions on the working fluid temperature in the solar collectors was analyzed. For that purpose data from the solar system installed in the Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja was used. The measured data such as ambient temperature and the total of solar radiation effort was used to calculate operating parameters of a flat liquid solar collector battery. Power, average absorber temperature, working fluid outlet temperature and average collector temperature were evaluated. The analysis was performed for twelve months from 1st of December 2008 to 30th of November 2009. Comparison of a real value of the working fluid outlet temperature from the solar system with the values obtained from calculations was made. Measured temperature of the working fluid at the outlet of the solar collector battery showed similar values to the theoretical ones. The obtained results demonstrated that the most profitable period on exploitation of the solar collector battery is from April to September. During this period, the working fluid is able to transfer enough energy to heat water for utility purposes. While during other months it seems appropriate to exclude the solar system from service in the Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja, because of too low value of the energy flux density of solar radiation. To sum up, performed analysis showed that the solar system can be a main source of hot water during six months in the West Pomeranian province.
Key words: solar collector, absorber, energy flux density of solar radiation, heating hot water, weather/meteorological conditions
A. Przewłocka, P. Pianko–Oprych str. 251
Analiza osadów dennych pod kątem ich właściwości nawozowych
THE ANALYSIS OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR FERTILIZING PROPERTIES
In paper the characterize of sediments as product to nature usage was done. Analyzed material was taken from ecological treatment system located in wastewater treatment plant in Swarzewo (Pomerania Region) about flow Q= 6000 m3•d–1. Measurements of dry matter and organic matter content, as well as nitrogen concentrations and phosphorus fractions: loosely bound on surface of sediments particles (NH4Cl–P), bound with iron compounds (Fe–P), bound with aluminum and organic matter (NaOH–P), bound with magnesium and calcium (HCl–P) and in insoluble compounds with mineral and organic character (Res.–P). Also the concentration of six heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd) along the profile of sediments were determined. On the basis of obtained results in sediments it was found the high concentration of nitrogen (from 3.0 to 4.23% d.m.). Moreover the sediments are the rich source of phosphorus directly assimilable by plants. The part of bioavailable form (sum of NH4Cl–P, Fe–P, NaOH–P fractions) was about 80.0% of total phosphorus. It was proved that average concentrations of analyzed metals in sediments were below permissible values described by Polish law for agricultural usage. Problem in agricultural usage poses high moisture and presence of pathogens – pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, fungus and parasites.
Key words: Ecological Treatment Systems (ETS), sediments, fractions of phosphorus, nutrients, heavy metals
A. Tuszyńska, K. Kołecka str. 259
Zanieczyszczenia powietrza w środowisku pracy podczas przecinania ściernicowego ręcznego i możliwości ich ograniczenia
WORK ENVIRONMENT AIR CONTAMINATION DURING MANUAL ABRASIVE CUTTING AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS LIMITATION
Abrasive cutting using grinding wheels is a process which takes place on a mass scale – around 25 million grinding wheels are sold annually on the Polish market alone. Grinding wheels can pose many health and safety hazards, specially breathing in dusts can cause respiratory problems. Even when a grinding wheel is tested and equipped with all possible safety devices, grinding is still a hazardous activity. This creates a major environmental hazard in the form of dust and smoke released into the air. The article presents a threat of environmental pollution of air dust, metals and gases in a closed room when cutting steel bars with aloxite grinding wheels. Comparative assessment of the internal air pollutants, using a grinding wheel with a diameter of 230 mm of five producers was based on 30 intersections of each wheel, steel rod with a diameter of 20 mm. Using a special container has allowed more than 30 times to reduce environmental risks to a level not exceeding the exposure limits.
Key words: aloxite grinding wheel, abrasive cutting, air pollution, absorber of pollution
E. Klugmann–Radziemska, H. Biegalski str. 267
Koncentracja oraz mobilność fosforu i siarki w jęczmieniu jarym w zależności od nawożenia
CONCENTRATION AND MOBILITY OF PHOSPHORUS AND SULPHUR IN SPRING BARLEY PLANTS DEPENDING ON FERTILISATION
The paper presents the results of research on the concentration and the mobility of phosphorus and sulphur in spring barley fertilised with varied FYM rates (20, 40, t•ha–1) and with nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N•ha–1) against the contents of those elements in a Luvisol. A high content of available phosphorus in soil according to the criteria provided for in PN–R–04023  classifies it to the class II. The content of sulphate sulphur was, on average, 17.80 mg . kg–1, which qualifies it as the soil according to the boundary numbers of the content of sulphur in mineral soils as representing the soil of a high content of that nutrient. The highest value (ITS) of sulphur was observed for nitrogen fertilisation at the rate of 40 kg.ha–1. As for sulphur, a decreasing value of the translocation coefficient with an increase in the rate of ammonium nitrate was noted. The highest nitrogen rate caused in a decrease in Pog in the spring barley biomass for the FYM application at the rate of both 20 t•ha–1 and 40 t•ha–1. It was found that the translocation of phosphorus and sulphur from the underground spring barley parts to the overground ones was changing depending on the kind and the rate of the fertilisers applied.
Key words: spring barley, yield, phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen, FYM.
J. Lemanowicz, A. Siwik–Ziomek str. 276