Ocena dostępnych narzędzi komputerowego wspomagania projektowania i symulacji hybrydowych instalacji OZE
EVALUATION OF TOOLS AVAILABLE COMPUTER–AIDED DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF HYBRID RES INSTALLATIONS
The paper presents main information about hybrid RES installations – the definition of RES and their characteristics. In paper also shown aspects accompanying the design proces of hybrid instalation. The design process of Hybrid RES is more complicated than designing the instalation only with one energy source. To acquire the best installation parameters in respect of economic, ecological and energy efficiency the optimalization methods are used. A big improvement in design may be computer – aided design and simulation tools for hybride RES installations. The most known are HOGA, HOMER Pro, Hybrid 2 and PolySun. In order to present the possibilities of this program the sample simulation were carried out using the program HOMER Pro.
Key words: hybrid RES instalation, HOGA, HOMER Pro, computer – aided design tools, optymalization
I. Piasecka, W. Kruszelnicka, O. Madej, A. Tomporowski str. 163
Analiza możliwości komputerowego wspomagania badania i oceny cyklu istnienia odnawialnych źródeł energii
ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF COMPUTER–AIDED TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
Renewable energy installations are generally considered environmentally friendly, on account of low emission of harmful substances during the production of energy. In assessing the impact on the ecosystem should be taken into account the entire plant life cycle from design and manufacture to postconsumer development. Used in assessing the parametric models, among others, LCA method, as well as ecobalancing and method of ecopoints are quite complicated. Some support in the examination of the life cycle may be applications supporting this process, for example: Sima Pro, WindFarmer and SolidWorks Sustainability. In order to illustrate the possibilities of programs conducted life cycle analysis of 2 MW using SimaPro program. The paper contains the results of surveys, together with their analysis.
Key words: life cycle assessment, renewable energy sources, LCA, Sima Pro, SolidWorks Sustainability, WindFarmer
A. Tomporowski, I. Piasecka, W. Kruszelnicka, K. Piotrowska str. 170
Ocena potencjału naturalnej odnowy roślinności zanurzonej w zdegradowanym Jeziorze Góreckim (Wielkopolski Park Narodowy)
ASSESSMENT OF A NATURAL POTENTIAL FOR A RENEWAL OF THE SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN DEGRADED GÓRECKIE LAKE (WIELKOPOLSKI NATIONAL PARK)
Major ecological problem of degraded lakes is a lack of submerged macrophyte and charophyte stands. Feature of eutrophic lakes is a large primary production and, in consequence, a reduction of the light penetration through high abundant sedimentation of dead organisms (high turbidity) and production of large quantities of fresh sediments. Too deep position of propagules in the bottom sediment reduces germination despite correct water temperature and of downward irradiance. The aim of the study was evaluation the germination potential of propagules from samples of bottom sediments of Góreckie Lake, degraded in result of eutrophication. Laboratory experiment showed very poor germination macrophytes and macroalgae despite the generally numerous seeds and oospores bank in the sediments. It was stated that a lack of natural regeneration of macrophytes in this lake may be a consequence of small amount of intact diasporas in the surface layer of sediments. Elimination of macrophytes and macroalgae causes fixed impoverishment of propagules bank (mainly by fish feeding) as well as deeper hubbing into old sediments, without the possibility of return on the surface.
Key words: macrophytes, macroalgae, degraded lake, bottom sediments, laboratory experiment
M. Rybak, T. Joniak str. 177
Łąki w krajobrazie rolniczym Płaskowyżu Proszowickiego (Wyżyna Małopolska)
MEADOWS IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE PROSZOWICE PLATEAU (MAŁOPOLSKA UPLAND)
In strongly deforested landscape of the Proszowice Plateau, in 80% covered by arable lands, meadows form an important and valuable element. They dominate in extended valleys of the Szreniawa and Nidzica rivers, where occupied bottoms and slopes of the Neolithic tomb mounds (barrows), and wide area of the Medieval settlement in Stradów. They are also present in the Vistula River valley. Due to the favourable natural conditions and intensive land management since the Neolithic, the vast 770–km2 area of the Proszowice Plateau, i.e. a subregion of the Nida Basin, is a typical agricultural area. In 1997–2000, investigations of the vegetation cover were carried out and later continued in this region, which is still poorly explored in terms of phytosociology. This article presents results of research conducted in meadow and swamp communities. 1600 phytosociological relevés were taken with the use of the Braun–Blanquet method the data obtained were analysed with multivariate and statistical methods. It was found that the occurrence of xerothermic grasslands (Festuco–Brometea) and wet meadows (particularly from the alliance Calthion) is a characteristic feature of the vegetation cover in the Proszowice Plateau. These communities comprise species that are rare in other regions of the country, and their spatial distribution associated with various terrain forms and diverse substrates exerts a substantial effect on the heterogeneity of the landscape. In the groups of meadows and rushes, 32 associations and 4 plant communities were distinguished. Based on the phytosociological relevés from the phytocoenoses of five main associations, statistically significant relationships were found between the number of species and soil moisture, slope inclination, and the meadow management and type. Phytocoenoses growing on slightly inclined slopes and fresh soils exhibited the highest species richness. Particularly evident was the influence of the type of land management on the species richness in managed patches, compared with the abandoned land.
Key words: agricultural landscape, Braun–Blanquet method, meadows and rushes, site conditions, management, species richness, community diversity
M. Kotańska, K. Towpasz, T. Wójcik, J. Mitka str. 183
Proekologiczne zachowania w gospodarstwie domowym istotnym elementem ochrony środowiska GREENING BEHAVIOR IN THE HOUSEHOLD IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
A survey conducted among residents of towns and villages Kujawsko–Pomorskie province established that they come up for action to protect the environment with great commitment. The sense of responsibility for the environment is for 97.3% of respondents very important. At the household level, it manifests itself in environmental efforts aimed at saving energy and water and to reduce waste production. The most important actions in this regard were generally: the purchase of energy–efficient lighting (74.6%), attention to turning off the tap while brushing your teeth (73.3%), investing in things of good quality (66.6%). The vast majority segregates waste (73.3%) and they know they do it. Although many respondents could not identify the year in which a new system of waste management was introduced in the country (37.3%), however, up 70.6% stated that their respective sorting favors recycled, or re–using them. The responses from the various research groups, separated by gender, origin and education of the respondents did not show significant differences.
Key words: greening behavior, environmental protection, household, residents of towns and villages
J. Cichowska str. 193
Quantitative determination of iso–alpha acids in beers from Polish market by UV spectrophotometric method and the statistical evaluation of results
ILOŚCIOWE OZNACZANIE IZO–ALFA KWASÓW W PIWACH DOSTĘPNYCH NA POLSKIM RYNKU METODĄ SPEKTROFOTOMETRYCZNĄ UV I OCENA STATYSTYCZNA WYNIKÓW
W artykule przedstawiono analizę goryczy metodą spektrofotometryczną w czterech próbkach piwa. Próbki wybrano tak, aby oznaczyć wartość IBU (Międzynarodowe Jednostki Gorycz) w różnych rodzajach piwa (bezalkoholowym, owocowym i dwóch piwach alkoholowych). Oznaczenie goryczy przeprowadzono zgodnie z procedurą zawartą w Polskiej Normie PN–A–79093–12 Piwo–Metoda Badań – oznaczanie goryczy metodą spektrofotometryczną. Próbki po odgazowaniu zakwaszono przez dodanie kwasu HCI. Izo–alfa kwasy ekstrahowano izooktanem i analizowano za pomocą spektrofotometru przez rejestrację widma w zakresie od 200 do 400 nm. Wartości absorbancji interpretowano przy analitycznej długości fali 275 nm. Dla każdej próbki piwa analizę powtórzono siedem razy. Wartość goryczki dla analizowanych próbek wyniosła 1,4–21,5 IBU. Ocena statystyczna wykazała, że poziom błędu systematycznego jest niemal zerowy, co potwierdza dokładność stosowanej metody. W pracy wykazano, że procedura jest dokładna, precyzyjna i powtarzalna, a jednocześnie bardzo prosta i tania.
Słowa kluczowe: spektrofotometria UV, izo–alfa–kwasy, gorycz w piwie, ocena statystyczna, test Q–Dixona
I. Budnik, A. Matłoka, J. Siepak str. 201
Właściwości prozdrowotne marchwi (Daucus carota L.) jako funkcja odmiany oraz stosowania użyźniacza UGmax
HEALTH PROMOTING PROPERTIES OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) AS A FUNCTION OF CULTIVAR AND USE OF SOIL FERTILITY ENHANCER UGMAX
The nutritional and health value of carrots is highly acclaimed because of the content of biologically active compounds in their roots. In this study the contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant capacity were considered. In the presented research the influence of cultivar (conventional and colored) as well as application of soil enhancer agent UGmax on the health–promoting compounds in the carrot roots were verified. Furthermore, the stability of chosen compounds during three months of storage was evaluated. The experiments have shown a significant advantage of purple variety ‘Deep Purple’ in terms of presence of health–promoting compounds. The least reach in these compounds was cultivar ‘Mello Yello’, which is often used for frozen products. It was caused by low content of carotenoids and polyphenolic compounds as well as lack of anthocyanins. Application of soil enhancer agent UGmax positive influenced the content of carotenoids and polyphenolics. Storage time negatively influenced the health promoting compounds, especially the water soluble fractions. Furthermore, the highest losses were determined at the most valuable variety ‘Deep Purple’, which is only appropriate for use direct after harvest.
Key words: conventional and colored carrots, antioxidant capacity FRAP, polyphenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, storage
A. J. Keutgen, E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, W. Kozera, T. Knapowski,
W. Mozolewski str. 206
Поведение агрономических показателей семян под влиянием диэлектрической сепарации
WPŁYW DIELEKTRYCZNEJ SEPARACJI NA WITALNOŚĆ NASION
Przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu elektrofizycznej obróbki na kiełkowanie drobnych nasion aromatycznych roślin po modernizacji separatora dielektrycznego
Słowa kluczowe: witalność nasion; separacja dielektryczna
A. Gorodecka, Y. Gorodecki str. 211