Pływy i ich znaczenie ekologiczne na przykładzie wybrzeża morza północnego w dolnej Saksonii w Niemczech
TIDES AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL MEANING ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE NORTH SEA COAST IN LOWER SAXONY, GERMANY
The following article presents the ecological role of tides and the formation of the Wadden Sea that results from their activity. This area stretches from Den Helder in Netherlands to Esbjerg in Denmark. Approximately 60% of this biotope is localized in Germany and a considerable part is situated on the North Sea coast of Lower Saxony.
Apart from tides, there are some other factors contributing to the existence of the Wadden Sea i.e.: islands created from the open sea side, flatly sloped seabed, delicate seabed material, moderate climate. The effect of their cooperation results in the formation of the three main biotopes. In the areas between flood embankments and the coastline halophile meadows are created, which are a highly specialized ecosystem. Apart from the halophile species that reside there, an important role is played by algae, mollusks, bugs and crustaceans. Habitat conditions show a certain zone preference which is also seen in the floristic composition.
Another biotope is watt, that is the part of the sea being cyclically uncovered and consecutively flooded by water during the change of tides. The argillaceous watt, which settles closest to the shore, is covered by a delicate material. The area is mostly covered by algae which constitute as food for small snails Littorina littorea and Hydrobia ulvae. A watt mixed with sand, clay and surface organic particles is created closer to the shore. Macoma balthica and Mya arenaria clams can be seen there, as well as Arenicola marina and Lanice conchilega polychaeta. In the zones where water still has a lot of force, heavy particles of sand are transported and the sandy watt appears. Cerastoderma edule i Mytilus edulis clams live there. Sandy dunes formed mostly on the east and north part of the East Frisian Islands are another type of biotope. Over the course of time through ecological succession their stability increases thanks to specific kinds of plants i.e.: Ammophila arenaria, Leymus arenarius, Elymus farctus and Eryngium maritimum. The sand dunes area is the breeding place for birds like Tadorna tadorna and Larus sp. The Watt Sea is of great ecological importance. It is a natural habitat for many plants and animals, a place for bird migration, breeding and rearing of many North Sea fish species and a place where biologic water cleansing occurs. Furthermore, sand dunes, especially those placed on islands, protect the land from flooding. In 1986 the Lower Saxon Watt Sea National Park was created. The park premises spread along the Cities of Emden and Cuxhaven. The mentioned biotopes, coast line, sand islands and sandbanks are under protection.
Key words: tides, wadden sea, watt, halophilic meadows, dunes
K. Pawełko, A. Jasińska str. 341
Częstość izolacji grzybów z rodzaju Aspergillus z dziobów i kloaki piskląt bociana białego Ciconia ciconia (L.) na terenie województwa lubuskiego
THE FREQUENCY OF ASPERGILLUS SPP. ISOLATION FROM THE BEAKS AND RECTUM OF WHITE STORK CICONIA CICONIA (L.) CHICKS IN THE AREA OF LUBUSKIE COUNTY
White stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a wading bird populating mainly agricultural land. Chicks remain in the nest for 54–64 days after hatching and during this time are exposed to a number of negative natural and anthropogenic factors. Invasive fungal infections are one of the main factors of mortality among birds, but wild birds are especially vulnerable in the first weeks of life. The most common mycoses occurring in birds are: aspergillosis and candidiasis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in beaks and rectum of white stork chicks in areas of riverside meadows, suburban areas and contaminated areas of lubuskie county as a factor which may indicate a risk of aspergillosis.
Swabs collected from beaks and rectum of white stork chicks in June 2011 were research material. The study included 98 birds. Material from the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar with penicillin and streptomycin. The cultures were incubated at 37°C for the first day, and than at 25ºC for the next four days. Further studies were designed to test, from which birds Aspergillus spp. fungi were isolated from beaks and rectum. The identification was based on macroscopic and microscopic observations.
It was found that among the 98 tested chicks Aspergillus spp. fungi were present in 26 (26.5%) birds. Among these, 57.7% had colonized only beaks, 23.1% only rectum, and 19.2% – both beaks and rectum. In this study only three species of the Aspergillus genus were identified – A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger. The most common species was A. fumigatus. Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in 80.0% of swabs taken from the beaks and in 72.7% of rectum swabs per 26 chicks colonized by fungi.
Key words: white stork (Ciconia ciconia), isolation of Aspergillus spp., aspergillosis in birds, beak, rectum
K. Skowron, J. Kwiecińska–Piróg, E. Gospodarek, P. Kamiński, L. Jerzak str. 349
Środowisko elektromagnetyczne człowieka – studia literaturowe
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT OF MAN – LITERATURE OVERVIEW
This paper is a short introduction to electromagnetic field influence on human being. Legislative coverage and protection standards are discussed in this work. The exposure limits for electromagnetic field for residential and occupational exposure are presented. Review of effects caused by different types of fields on human is presented. Positive and negative effects of electromagnetic fields influence on man are mentioned. This paper has illustrative character.
Key words: electromagnetic field, biological effects, protection standards, exposure limits, electromagnetic environment
T. Długosz, K. Duziński str. 357
Ramienica Chara fragilis Desv. jako bioindykator poprawy warunków środowiska w Jeziorze Charzykowskim
CHARA FRAGILIS DESVAUX AS A BIOINDICATOR OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN LAKE CHARZYKOWSKIE
Transformations in the water environment and vegetation of Lake Charzykowskie over the years 1947–2006 were analysed against the variations in the pollution supply. In 1947, so prior to the lake pollution, the concentration of orthophosphate was 0.08 mgPO4/dm3. In subsequent years, the concentration of this element increased to reach a record high of 0.48 mgPO4/dm3 in 1992. After this year a decrease in the concentration of phosphate phosphorus was observed as a direct consequence of starting the operation of a waste purification plant. On a background of different anthropogenic interactions, changes were noted in the structure of the submerged vegetation, in particular in the contribution of stoneworts/Characeae. Prior to the period of the intense loading of the lake with biogenes, in the lake vegetation only two stonewort species were met Chara fragilis (= Ch. globularis Thuillier) and Nitellopsis obtusa, at the peak of eutrophisation stoneworts totally withdrew, while the submerged vegetation reduced the vertical range from 6 m to 3 m. Investigation performed in 2006 revealed the presence of Chara fragilis clusters. Recolonisation of C. fragilis is the first clear biological symptom of improvement in the environmental conditions. It is expected that on prolonged maintenance of low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus as well as good light conditions, other stonewort species can appear, their frequency and biomass in the littoral can increase.
Key words: charophytes, Chara fragilis Desvaux (= Ch. globularis Thuillier), submerged plants, bioindicator, recolonization, Charzykowskie Lake
R. Chmara str. 363
Zastosowanie adaptacyjnej metody elementów skończonych typu hp w analizie statycznej konstrukcji prętowych
APPLICATION OF hp–ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO STATIC ANALYSIS OF BAR STRUCTURES
Adaptive Finite Element Method is a numerical method nowadays developed and used in various fields of physics and engineering. Thanks to the automatic selection of the finite element size and the degree of approximation, it allows to obtain a very high accuracy of the results. This is possible thanks to the error control solution during the process of calculation. The article presents the problem of the use of hp–adaptive Finite Element Method for static analysis of bar structures. The model of the three–dimensional theory of elasticity and the way of its implementation in the Finite Element Method is also presented. In a concise way described the essence and types of adaptive techniques of the Finite Element Method. A general adaptation algorithm of finite element mesh used in hp technology is also given. Indicated the main advantages and disadvantages of the numerical analysis of the structures using the hp approach. The numerical examples submitted in the article show that it is possible to apply the hp method for the analysis of bar structures. The results obtained are similar to the solutions obtained other recognized methods.
Key words: numerical analysis, hp adaptive finite method, theory of elasticity, bar structures, static analysis
R. Tews, J. Gajewski str. 371