Właściwości fizyczne wybranych produktów na bazie kakao
MAJOR HAZARDS AND SIMILAR EVENTS IN DANGEROUS MATERIALS TRANSPORT IN POLAND
THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED PRODUCTS BASED ON COCOA
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected physical properties of cocoa–based products. Material consisted of three cocoa: granular soluble cocoa drink under the trade name Pooh, product II – Mixfix agglomerated cocoa beverage and product III, loose natural cocoa dark – Freedom.
The scope of work included an assessment of the water content, water activity, composition, grain size, bulk density and tapped loose, Hausnera factor, Index Carra – describing the flow properties of powdered products and wettability – characterized the reproducibility of the products in the liquid
Based on the survey found differences in the fiber composition and particle size of powders investigated. Characterization of physical properties allowed include products that have undergone a process of granulation and agglomeration (product I and II), to materials of low cohesion and good flowability. Whereas the product III, characterized by a high cohesiveness and poor flow properties. On the basis of the evaluation of wettability it was found that the best wettability was characterized by agglomerated cocoa – product II, however, the resulting value does not correspond to the product wettability instant.
Key words: the cocoa based drink, the Hausner ratio (HR), Carr index (IC), wettability
P. Palich, M. Ruszkowska, E. Regulewska str. 301
Ocena stopnia zasiedlenia ziarniaków różnych odmian kukurydzy przez grzyby pleśniowe
THE EVALUATION OF KERNEL COLONIZATION DIFFERENT MAIZE VARIETIES BY MOLD FUNGI
The presented study was aimed to determine the degree of fungal contamination of kernels of three maize varieties cultivated at the experimental station of the University of Agriculture in Cracow. The degree of fungal colonization was examined in three periods – in the stage of lactic, waxy and full maturity. A total of 264 cobs were analyzed, of which kernels after surface sterilization were placed on Potato Dextrose Agar for the isolation of mold fungi. After a week of incubation, the number (percentage) of infected kernels was determined. Systematic identification of the obtained fungal isolates was conducted by comparing the macroscopic and microscopic observations with diagnostic manuals. The highest frequency of maize kernel colonization by mold fungi was observed in the Dumka variety (16.7%), while the lowest – in the waxy maize (8.9%). The greatest abundance of fungi was observed in September, that is in the phase of waxy maturity. Systematic identification of fungi infecting the examined maize varieties indicated that Fusarium, Cladosporium and Alternariawere the most frequently isolated molds. Relatively low frequency of maize kernel infection by mold fungi could have resulted from the prevailing weather conditions in summer 2012 (very hot and dry season). Nevertheless, the presence of potentially toxigenic fungi indicates the need for monitoring of cultivations, as well as the necessity to search for more effective methods of plant protection against fungal infections.
Key words: maize, mold fungi, Fusarium spp., toxigenic fungi
A. Lenart–Boroń, A. Klimek–Kopyra str. 306
Wpływ wybranych preparatów na wzrost in vitro patogenicznego grzyba Cladobotryum dendroides występującego w uprawie pieczarki dwuzarodnikowej
EFFECT OF SOME PREPARATIONS ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF PATHOGENIC FUNGUS CLADOBOTRYUM DENDROIDES OCCURRING IN CULTIVATION OF BUTTON MUSHROOM
Validation of concentrations of some disinfecting preparations was performed under laboratory conditions to assess the effectiveness of their action in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Cladobotryum dendroides inducing cobweb disease in button mushroom cultivation. The isolates used for the study derived from infected fruiting bodies of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Plate tests were performed on potato dextrose agar (PDA), to which suitable amounts of tested disinfectants were added to obtain the following concentrations: Agrosteril 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5%; Lerasept spezial 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0% and formalin 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0%. A series of examinations indicated that the lowest concentration of the chemical product which completely inhibited the growth of C. dendroides after 14 days of incubation amounted to 1% for Agrosteril, 0.5% for Lerasept and 0.8% for formalin. For comparison, the effectiveness of the biological preparation EM–Bio based on effective microorganisms was assessed. That preparation used in a dose of 100 mg/cm3 of medium reduced the development of pathogen mycelium on the level 77.8–96.0%.
Key words: Agaricus bisporus, Cladobotryum dendroides, cobweb disease, disinfectant preparations, effective microorganisms (EM)
B. Breza–Boruta, Z. Paluszak str. 310
Pilotażowe badania poziomu fosforu w glebie rolnej z Powidza
i w warstwie kulturowej ze stanowiska archeologicznego nr 15a
THE PILOT STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL FROM POWIDZ AND CULTURAL LAYER FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE NO. 15A IN BISKUPIN
The content of phosphorus in soils has for a long time been the subject of interest for archaelogists due to its potential to offer clues concerning the level of human activity in a given area in the past. In addition, measuring phosphorus content in agricutural soil is an essential element to determine fertilization doses. It is important to carry out the study prior to sowing in order to obtain good quality and abundant crop. The present paper contains the results of the pilot study to measure the content of phosphorus P2O5 in agricultural soil samples taken from a field in the village of Powidz. It also features the results of measuring the phosphorus content in the samples of cultural layer which is an anthropogenically transformed fossil soil taken from archaelogical site 15a from the reserve area of the Archaelogical Museum in Biskupin.
Key words:culturalsoil;phosphorus in agricultural soil; fossil soils; spectrophotometric method VIS; phosphate method; Q–Dixon test
A. Matłoka, M. Wiktorska, J. Karliński–Kociuba, Ł.Pilaczyński, S. Nowaczyk, J. Siepak str. 316
Ekspertyzy przedmelioracyjne jako źródło informacji o stanie fitocenoz siedlisk podmokłych w Borach Tucholskich
PRE–LAND–RECLAMATION EXPERTISES AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION ON THE STATE OF THE PHYTOCENOSES OF SWAMPY HABITATS IN THE TUCHOLA PINEWOODS
Changes in the swampy habitats, involving an excessive and permanent decrease in their moisture, lead to significant changes in the species composition of the plant communities accompanying them. As for the phytosociological studies performed in a bigger area, there is often too little material for comparisons, and so it is difficult to determine the dynamics of the phenomenon.
The materials collected from the resources of the Provincial Authorities of Land Reclamation and Water Devices on the last countrywide land–reclamation action of the 1960s and 1970s, in many cases, can refer to the present situation.
As for the area of the activities of the Field Bureau in Świecie (K–PZMiUW in Włocławek) 12 studies have been identified. Those are the documentations including a quality variation, space–oriented flora records.
The attempt at defining the phytocenosis structure of the area and the characteristics of respective patches of phytocenoses made has been successful. The documentations collected provide information on the structure of meadow and peatland phytocenoses dating 40 years back as well as on the occurrence and the abundance of protected species, which facilitated differentiating between 15 syntaxa, mostly in a form of communities which correspond to those currently existing in this area.
Key words: Tuchola Pinewoods, pre–land–reclamation expertises, plant communities, protected species
T. Stosik str. 325
Różnorodność gatunkowa awifauny wodno–błotnej zimującej w miastach Pomorza i Kujaw
SPECIES DIVERSITY OF WATER AND WETLAND BIRDS WINTERING IN CITIES OF THE POMORZE AND KUJAWY
Bird monitoring was carried out during the winter periods of 2007–2011 in Bydgoszcz and 16–24 other cities within the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Province (N–Poland).
During the consecutive years, 8–17 species of water and wetland birds wintered in Bydgoszcz, and 4–14 species in smaller cities.
The numbers of water and wetland birds wintering within the administrative borders of each city fluctuated significantly between years. A total of 4193–13279 individuals of water and wetland birds wintered in the monitored cities.
The factors which significantly affected the species diversity and dynamics of birds wintering in small cities were: !air temperature and the size of the water body, and, as a consequence, the extent of ice cover on the respective water body/watercourse. In big cities, on the other hand, the factor equally significant as the temperature was the level of human pressure, especially the constant availability of a rich food source provided by humans and the frequency of penetration of bird roosting sites by domestic animals (mainly dogs).
Key words: water and wetland birds, wintering in cities and towns
P. Indykiewicz, A. Frieske str.332
Oferta produktów tematycznych w turystyce wiejskiej
THE OFFER OF THEMATIC PRODUCTS IN RURAL TOURISM
Conducted in 2013, the study revealed that the Polish village prepared a 260 themed leisure offers recommended by the Polish Federation of Rural Tourism “Hospitable Farms”. They were accumulated in seven blocks targeted at different groups of people. The largest share of services were for mushroom pickers (17.5%), families with children (16.1%) and tourists who prefer to stay in agriculture (15.7%) and “in the saddle” (15.3%). Of all the jobs posted on the “agritourism” portal among surfers greatest interest was proposing a block horseback riding (over 10 million views). Małopolska (against the background of other administrative units of Poland) offered the largest number of thematic proposals for leisure activities (75), also had the highest average number of persons making virtual visits (49 896) and the most extensive photo gallery (552 photos).
Key words: rural tourism, tourism product, themed holiday deals
J. Cichowska str. 340
Wpływ erozji gleb na fizjonomię krajobrazu
THE IMPACT OF SOIL EROSION ON THE LANDSCAPE PHYSIOGNOMY
The paper presents the impact of soil erosion on the landscape physiognomy. Forms were localised and main types of erosion processes were determined. Effects of soil erosion on agricultural areas of the Chełmno, Gniezno and Krajna Lakeland were analysed. The soil cross section transects were localised on diverse slopes used for farming purposes. Degrees of soil deformation were assessed by analysis of morphology and properties, such as soil texture, humus and calcium carbonate content and macroelements of the eroded pedons.
Key words: landscape physiognomy, young glacial landscape, agricultural area, water erosion, wind erosion, cultivation erosion
P. Wiśniewski, M. Wojtasik str. 346
Walory krajobrazowe a rozwój turystyki na przykładzie gminy wiejskiej Ostróda
LANDSCAPE ASSETS VERSUS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – A CASE STUDY OF THE RURAL COMMUNE OF OSTRÓDA
The article describes relationships between cultural landscape assets and the development of tourism, using the rural commune of Ostróda (in the Province of Warmia and Mazury) as an example. The study spanned the years 2011–2013 and covered an area of 410 km2 lying within the commune and in its immediate surroundings. The goal was to make an inventory and an evaluation of the tourist facilities as well as to evaluate the landscape qualities in 20 largest villages. Most of the commune has high–quality scenic values, but the most precious landscapes are situated in its eastern and northern parts. Both nature and scenic assets as well as the well–developed network of tourist facilities promote the development of activity tourism. The analyzed area is crisscrossed by numerous tourist trails and routes, with many accommodation facilities available nearby. The study contained an assessment of the tourist facilities and their management in the twenty examined locations. The highest scores were achieved by the following villages: Kajkowo, Stare Jabłonki and Kraplewo.
Key words: Mazury, landscape, inventory, valuation, tourist facilities
M. Antolak str. 352
Mehrschneiden–Zerkleinerung der Polymer–Laminate – Teil 1: mathematisches Model
WIELOKRAWĘDZIOWE ROZDRABNIANIE LAMINATÓW Z TWORZYW POLIMEROWYCH – CZEŚĆ I: MODEL MATEMATYCZNY
Niezbędnym warunkiem podwyższania sprawności oraz dalszego rozwoju recyrkulacji tworzyw jest opracowanie efektywnej technologii rozdrabniania recyrkulatów na granulat o jakości pożądanej dalszym użyciem oraz końcowych wytworów o zadowalającej jakości. Algorytm postępowania przy projektowaniu nowych technologii winien uwzględniać aspekt energetyczny – na każdym etapie recyrkulacji, również na etapie rozdrabniania.
Słowa kluczowe: wielokrawędziowe rozdrabnianie, laminaty polimerowe
A. Tomporowski, R. Kasner, I. Piasecka, K.Opielak, Ł. Siekierka str. 359
Mehrschneiden–Zerkleinerung der Polymer–Laminate – Teil 2: Experimentale Forschungen
WIELOKRAWĘDZIOWE ROZDRABNIANIE LAMINATÓW Z TWORZYW POLIMEROWYCH – CZEŚĆ II: BADANIA EKSPERYMENTALNE
W pracy zaproponowano i zrealizowano dwuetapową metodykę badań rozdrabniania elementów poporodukcyjnych z nadlewek łopat elektrowni wiatrowej (etap pierwszy: frezowanie na frezarce pionowej NC – rozdrabnianie wstępne, etap drugi: rozdrabnianie za pomocą rozdrabniacza RAPID 2 – rozdrabnianie właściwe) wypełnia oczekiwania odnośnie rozwoju, w kierunku jak najwyższej efektywności procesu, jak największej jakości produktu oraz jak najniższej szkodliwości, destrukcyjności procesu i samego produktu.
Słowa kluczowe: wielokrawędziowe rozdrabnianie, laminaty polimerowe
A. Tomporowski, I. Piasecka, R. Kasner, K.Opielak, Ł. Siekierka str.364
Wspomaganie komputerowe projektowania instalacji pomp ciepła z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania WP–OPT
COMPUTER–AIDED DESIGNING OF HEAT PUMP INSTALLATIONS USING WP–OPT SOFTWARE
Introduced the way of working and capabilities of WP–OPT® software as a tool for computer–aided designing a heating installation of residential building. WP–OPT helps in designing heating system with heat pump basing on inserted known data of building in which projected heat installation will be implemented, as and data of climate, tariff for electric energy, heat source, central heating system and domestic hot water. Benefits that come with using this software primarily are time savings, precise results and ability to save and use again previously made data configuration.
Key words: software, computer–aid, designing, heat pump, WP–OPT
S. Przybył, M. Mądro str. 371
Wspomaganie komputerowe projektowania instalacji fotowoltaicznych z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania SOLinvest
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS USING SOFTWARE SOLINVEST
A market of photovoltaic systems requires proven techniques. Proper selection of installation allow optimally collect solar energy which is available. The article presents software functions in photovoltaic system design and their importance in the investment. To calculation and simulation used SOLinvest software, which is available in polish language version. SOLinvest allows visualization of costs and full report of results.
Key words: photovoltaic installation, SOLinvest, computer aided design of phototovoltaic systems
K. Klonowski, A. Włodarska str. 376
Wspomaganie komputerowe projektowania instalacji energetyki
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF WIND POWER INSTALLATION WITH USE SOFTWARE WINDFARMER
There was intensive development of wind energy and the associated phenomenon of the emergence of a significant number of programs to help design the installation of wind turbines. As a result, the trend has been noticed to discuss the most commonly used programs for the design and aspects affecting the design process. Using Wind Farmer program examined the correctness of localization of the wind farm and its impact on the environment. The paper presents simulation results.
Key words: Wind power, computer aided design, software WindFarmer, installations of wind turbines
D. Kasprzak, N. Kozłowska, W. Kruszelnicka, Ł. Kusio str. 380
Analiza emisyjności związków chemicznych cyklu istnienia elektrowni wiatrowych typu Gamesa G90
EMISSIVITY ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FROM LIFE CYCLE OF WIND POWER PLANTS GAMESA G90 TYPE
The study traced changes in the global, european and national wind energy market in the last fifteen years. Reviewed the most important types ofturbine processors and discussed the problems of computer–aided evaluation of emissivity using SimaPro software. Also has been made an analysis of emission of chemical compounds from wind turbines, based on example of 2–MW Gamesa G90 wind turbine.
Key words: wind turbine, the emissivity of chemical compounds, LCA, SimaPro
I. Piasecka str. 385