Wpływ atrazyny i jej produktów rozpadu na środowisko oraz organizm ludzki
EFFECT OF ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITES (BREAKDOWN PRODUCTS) ON ENVIRONMENT
AND HUMAN BODY
Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in United States. Recent studies report atrazine potentially toxicity. However most talk about xenoestrogenous activities. Xenoestrogens are exogenous endocrine disrupting compounds, that especially affect normal estrogenic signaling. Their adverse effect concern reducing male fertility and disrupting fetal life development. Atrazine is known to be persistent compound, however its half–life can extremely differ, depending on external factors. Traces of atrazine are found in surface and groundwater. This herbicide extend the area of contamination due to precipitations. Despite of many studies, there is no clear judgment in assessment of harmfulness of atrazine and its metabolites on environment and human body. Some countries have already banned application of atrazine.
Key words: atrazine, metabolites of atrazine, xenoestrogens, hormonal (endocrine) system, water treatment process.
M. Adamowicz, K. Makarova, K. Paradowska str. 323
Zróżnicowanie cech sensorycznych, parametrów barwy oraz wybranych składników bioaktywnych w gotowanych brokułach
DIFFERENTIATION OF SENSORY ATTRIBUTES, COLOUR PARAMETERS AND SELECTED BIOACTIVE
COMPOUNDS IN COOKED BROCCOLI
The effect of boiling broccoli in water, a steamer, a pressure cooker, a microwave on colour, texture and flavor sensory and the colour in the CIE Lab and changes in the content of vitamin C and thiocyanate, performance and power consumption were evaluated. The best color had broccoli cooked in water, the worst in the steamer. The most delicious broccoli were cooked in the microwave oven and steamer, at least in the water. The worst way of cooking because to maintain of vitamin C, thiocyanates as well as tastiness and power consumption is cooking broccoli in large quantities of water.
Key words: broccoli, thermal treatment, organoleptic properties, witamine C
R. Korzeniowska–Ginter, A. Wilczyńska, S. Chrostowska str. 331
Analiza wpływu elektrowni wiatrowych na środowisko atmosferyczne
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF WIND TURBINE ON THE ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
The study was devoted to issues of testing and assessing the impact of the life cycle of plastics materials and structural elements of technical objects with a high degree of complexity, which are wind power plants. It is an attempt to extend and complement the research conducted to date machinery and equipment renewable energy sector, with analysis of the environmental impact of production processes, maintenance and management of post–consumer workgroups wind turbines. The main objective of developing accounted for research, analysis and evaluation of the life cycle of plastics materials and components selected wind power in terms of the impact on the atmospheric environment.
Key words: LCA, wind power plants, Eco – indicator 99, impact of the atmospheric environment
R. Kasner str. 336
Wartość wypiekowa mąki pszennej i jej mieszanek z mąką orkiszową
WHEAT BAKING VALUE AND ITS COMPOUNDS WITH SPELT
Wheat acts an important role in crop production, due to the very high possibilities of its application, fertility, nutritive value and the taste of the products that are made from it. Moreover, the greatest advantage of this cereal is its applicability to bread baking and therefore it acts an important role in the food industry, both in Poland and abroad. Bread accounts for about 70% of all grain products consumed in a daily diet of a man. In Poland one can observe a decrease in bread consumption. The average monthly consumption per capita in 2011 was 4.46 kg. Due to the increasing number of diseases of affluence, consumers pay more attention to the food that helps to be healthy. As a result, the number of people interested in health enhancing foods, including bread, increases. In Poland, in recent years, the sale of bread made from spelt or with the spelt as the one of the ingredients has been growing. Loaves of spelt bread bake well, whereby one receives a product which crumb does not crumble during cutting, has a slightly nutty taste and fragrance, and remains soft and fresh longer. Therefore, in the 2012 growing season at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz Experimental Station in Minikowo (in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Voivodeship) the univariate field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of the diversified nitrogen fertilization (n = 4: 0, 70, 100 and 130 kg∙ha–1) on the yield and values of selected baking indicators of grain and flour of the facultative wheat variety (Ethos). Another aspect of the study was to examine whether the spelt flour added to the wheat flour in various amounts (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) may determine the volume of the bread that is the result of the test baking. On the basis of the obtained and calculated results on the research conducted, it was found that the average volume of bread from the baking trial increased throught the period in which significant dose of 70 kg N∙ha–1 were used. The admixture of the spelt flour to the wheat flour determined the volume of the bread obtained from the test baking. The most significant average values of this parameter, regardless to the nitrogen fertilizer application, were obtained with 10% and 20% addition of the spelt flour, compared to the control object. The interaction of nitrogen fertilization and the addition of the spelt flour to the wheat flour showed on average a significant impact on the volume of the test–baked bread. The most favorable value of the characteristics observed after the application of the wheat flour, which was obtained from the object with the 130 kg N∙ha–1, was applied with 10% addition of spelt flour.
Key words: Triticum aestivum L., nitrogen fertilization, bread volume, Triticum spelta L
T. Knapowski, W. Kozera, E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, W. Mozolewski, D. Wichrowska,
E. Żary–Sikorska str. 342
Zmienność aktywności wybranych enzymów glebowych pod wpływem oddziaływania tężni
VARIABILITY IN THE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED SOIL ENZYMES UNDER THE IMPACT OF A GRADUATION TOWER
The paper presents the varying activity of selected oxidoreductase (dehydrogenases and catalases) and hydrolytic (alkaline and acid phosphatases) enzymes in relation to selected properties of periodically saline Mollic Gleysols occurring within the impact zone of a graduation tower located in the Spa Park in the town of Inowrocław (the Kujawy–Pomerania Province). The following parameters were determined in soil samples: Corg, pH in 1M KCl using the potentiometric method, exchangeable cations Ca, Mg, Na, K, electrolytic conductivity, the chloride content, active phosphorus, the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, alkaline and acid phosphatases. The significant value of correlation between the activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase and pHKCl corroborated the previous results of the research saying that the enzyme pH index (AlP/AcP) can be used as an alternative method determining the soil reaction. The performed analyses proved that phosphomonoesterases are enzymes sensitive to changes in the soil pH. The results also show the lack of effect of alkali cations (responsible forthe salinity) on the activity of the analysed enzymes. In addition, measurements of the main soil parameters have shown their high variability. This can be explained by the direct impact of the graduation tower and the distance between the sampling sites from the source of salinity. The factor that affects the variability in the activity of dehydrogenases, alkaline and acid phosphatases and catalase in the soil is a high content of carbon in organic compounds. It thus appears that organic matter protects the enzymes against adverse factors prolonging their activity.
Key words: dehydrogenases, catalase, phosphatase, phaeozems (Mollic Gleysols), saline soils
J. Lemanowicz, M. Krzyżaniak str. 348
Efektywność fotodegradacji WWA w ściekach koksowniczych
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PHOTODEGRADATION PROCESS OF PAHs IN COKING WASTEWATER
The results of investigations into the efficiency of PAHs removal from wastewater treated by ultraviolet rays are presented in this study. The investigations were carried out using wastewater originating from a industrial treatment plant. The samples of wastewater were exposed to UV rays for 30, 60 and 90 seconds After exposition to UV rays the PAHs concentration was determined in the wastewater samples. The extraction of organic matrix from samples was made in the mixture of: cyclohexane and dichloromethane and methanol. The quantitative analysis of PAHs by HPLC with fluorescene detector was carried out. After exposition to ultraviolet rays decrease in PAHs concentration in the samples was observed. Exposure of wastewater to UV–rays resulted in a decrease in the concentration of PAHs in wastewater coming from a industrial wastewater treatment plant up to 31%. The efficiency of the removal of individual hydrocarbons was different and was in the range of 4,6 to 66,9%.
Key words: PAHs, HPLC–DAD, fotodegradation, coking wastewater
M. Włodarczyk–Makuła, A. Turek, A. Obstój str. 354
Wpływ dodatku polepszacza na jakość użytkową pieczywa
THE EFFECT OF ADDITIVE IMPROVER ON THE QUALITY OF USABLE THE BREAD
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the commercial improver – (Dynamil Pink), the quality of wheat bread usable, including 3 variants modify the cake. The first option was an attempt to control without the addition – improver, identified in the study as product A. The second option – wheat bread with 2 g improver additive – in the study as product B and product C–wheat bread with 4 g improver additive. The quality of bread in use was determined on the basis of organoleptic assessment of bread volume, porosity, and swelling capacity crumb moisture and water activity.
Key words: bread wheat, content and water activity, bread volume, crumb porosity, organoleptic assessment
P. Palich, M. Ruszkowska, I. Dąbrowska str. 360
Energetyczne wykorzystanie biomasy
ENERGETIC USE OF BIOMASS
Biomass is the most common fuel used to energy acquisition. Generally almost all biomass is burned in heating plants and power plants. To check energetic properties of biomass should be investigated many parametres: heat of combustion, flow rate, composition and temperature of the exhaust gas, moisture and ash content. The calculated values allow their comparison with the values of coal and define the ecological merits of biomass co–firing. In the paper presents the results of analyzes basic parametres of combustion for three types of biomass in various form.
Key words: energy from biomass, combustion, ash content, heat of combustion of biomass
W. Kruszelnicka, M. Szymczak, I. Piasecka, R. Kasner str. 364
Porównanie różnych systemów gospodarowania w technologii produkcji ziemniaka jadalnego
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION EDIBLE POTATO
The study aimed to determine the costs and production profitability edible potato cultivation technology obtained: conventional, integrated and ecological production. Analyses were based on data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Central Statistical Office, Agricultural Advisory Centres in Olsztyn and Minikowo.
It was found that ecological cultivation is the most profitable. The main protection methods plantations from weeds in ecological farming, mechanical treatments (increased costs). The second in terms of production profitability system is a conventional intense, and the least cost–effective is Integrated Production. Despite all the differences, both in production profitability and the cultivation method, each of these systems is profitable.
Key words: technology, ecological production, potato, costs, profitability
J. Pobereżny, E. Wszelaczyńska, K. Świerzyńska, W. Kozera,T. Knapowski, B. Murawska str. 370
Analiza procesu prażenia kawy na wybranym przykładzie
ANALYSIS OF THE ROASTING PROCESS OF COFFEE ON SELECTED EXAMPLES
The aim of this study was to analyze the process of roasting coffee roaster selected, to propose changes in the process and the verification of their effectiveness. The changes consisted of increased weight of coffee in a heat of 350 kg to 400 kg. The tasks that had to be done for this purpose was divided into two stages. In the first rated the quality of coffee when you change weight, and in the second stage of the time it takes to burn a greater amount of coffee and water, gas. Made of qualitative research, the color and the humidity of coffee after roasting, showed that the change in mass of the heat does not affect the quality of the coffee. The results were prompted to undertake fundamental research, which shows that increasing the weight of the heat resulted in a slight increase in roasting time and increased consumption of water and gas. Referring to the results of the annual coffee production in the selected oven turns out that the roaster is able to save 206 hours per year, decreased gas consumption by 3240 m3, while water consumption has increased by 70 thousand. liters.
Key words: coffee, roasting process, the heat, the cost of production
A. Rewolińska, K. Perz str. 374
Preferencje konsumentów do spożycia kolorowych odmian marchwi
CONSUMER PREFERENCESFOR CONSUMPTION OF COLORED VARIETIES OF CARROTS
The most popular in Poland in terms of consumption are varieties of carrot with a traditional orange–colored root. An alternative may be avarieties of carrots with purple, white or yellow color of the root as a raw material enriching an offer of processed products of carrots and as an important source of bioactive components in food. In a study of preferences for consumption of colored varieties of carrots were used anonymous questionnaire consisting of 12 questions and hedonic scale method when assessing the taste of raw carrots acceptance of a different color root and its products. The study involved 52 respondents, including 27 women and 25 men aged 20 to 26 years old. Before starting the evaluation method of hedonic scale respondents been trained in the methodology and procedures of the research. Assessment of preferences based on questionnaires and hedonic rate scale was carried out in the specialist laboratory for sensory evaluation in the Department of Microbiology and Food Technology at the University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz. 25% of respondents earlier consumed colored varieties of carrot (white, yellow, purple) which may result from the fact that they are not a product widely available on the market. Fresh carrots and carrot juice are preferred by consumers in comparison to the other tested processed products from carrot (carrots canned, frozen and cooked), which may be the result of a reduction in organoleptic properties during processing. Consumers prefer orange carrots from the other colored varieties of carrots, which confirms its widespread use in manufacturing, culinary traditions, and easy access on the market.
Key words: carrot, consumer preferences, questionnaire, hedonic scale, processed products
E. Żary–Sikorska, D. Wichrowska, G. Gozdecka, K. Gęsiński str. 378
Wpływ stresu osmotycznego na tworzenie biofilmu przez szczepy Listeria monocytogenes
THE EFFECT OF OSMOTIC STRESS ON BIOFILM FORMATION BY LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES STRAINS
Listeria monocytogenes is a major etiological agent of listeriosis in humans. These bacteria are spread mainly through contaminated food. The biggest threats pose food products not subjected to appropriate heat treatment. Very often L. monocytogenes strains are isolated from fish meat. Source of these bacteria in the final food product may be not only a raw material but also contaminated production line. Especially dangerous is the formation of biofilms on various surfaces in food processing plants. However, various treatments, aimed at reducing the prevalence of microorganisms in food, are used during food processing. One of them is the salting of food products.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on the intensity of biofilm formation on stainless steel by L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fish processing plants. The research material was L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fish processing plants and the reference strain ATCC 19111. A quantitative assessment of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes strains tested with sodium chloride concentration in the medium of respectively 0.0, 5.0 and 10.0% was carried out on sterile AISI 304 stainless steel fragments. The experiment was conducted in two versions – by means of strains directly isolated from fish processing plants and the same strains previously subjected to osmotic stress (incubation in the medium supplemented with 2.0% NaCl).
The obtained results showed some variation of the number of recovered bacteria from the biofilm depending on the strain. Moreover, strains pre–subjected to osmotic stress formed biofilms slightly stronger than the strains not subjected to this stress. However, a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was demonstrated only for L. monocytogenes strains forming biofilm at 10.0% NaCl concentration in the medium. Also, the concentration of NaCl in the growing medium effect on the intensity of the biofilm formation by the tested strains. The strongest biofilm was formed in 5.0% NaCl concentration. The study confirmed that the L. monocytogenes biofilm is resistant to salinity of the environment.
Key words: Listeria monocytogenes, biofilm formation, osmotic stress, sodium chloride, fish processing
A. Świeca, K. Skowron, P. Dukowski, Z. Paluszak str. 383
Organoleptic and physiochemical evaluation of mineral and spring waters available on the market
OCENA ORGANOLEPTYCZNA I FIZYKOCHEMICZNA WÓD MINERALNYCH I ŹRÓDLANYCH DOSTĘPNYCH NA RYNKU
ostatnich latach dynamicznie rozwija się segment żywności, która wymaga
zastosowania wody do jej przygotowania, w szczególności są to produkty
dla niemowląt i małych dzieci, a także różnego rodzaju koncentraty
spożywcze, zaliczane do tzw. żywności wygodnej. W związku z tym jakość
tej żywności w dużej mierze będzie zależała od jakości użytej wody.
Celem prowadzonych badań było określenie wybranych parametrów
sensorycznych i fizykochemicznych dziewięciu najczęściej wybieranych
przez konsumentów mieszkających w województwie kujawsko– pomorskim wód
mineralnych i źródlanych, a także wody wodociągowej z MWiK w Bydgoszczy i
ujęcia własnego – studni na terenie Doliny Dolnej Wisły. Analizą objęto
zapach na zimno i na gorąco, smak i posmak wody, wygląd
i konsystencję, a także sumaryczną zawartość wapnia i magnezu, twardość węglanową, prawidłowość i sposób oznakowania etykiety. Cechy organoleptyczne badanych wód butelkowanych nie budzą zastrzeżeń. Najbardziej miękkie były wody źródlane.
Słowa kluczowe: twardość trwała i węglanowa, smak, zapach, wygląd, tekstura
D. Wichrowska, E. Żary–Sikorska, T. Wojdyła, A. J. Keutgen, E. Wszelaczyńska,
J. Pobereżny str. 390
Jakość i preferencje odżywiania studentów regionu kujawsko–pomorskiego
THE QUALITY AND PREFERENCES STUDENT NUTRITION THE KUYAVIAN–POMERANIANAN REGION
In 2014 years was carried out research aimed at obtaining information on diet, quality of meals and the preferences a select group of young people studying at universities in different fields of study. Studied a group of 100 students questionnaire containing 20 closed questions and 2 single choice multiple–choice questions.The biggest mistake nutrition committed by the respondents is the irregularity of meals and meal overlooked is the breakfast. Students consume too much animal protein and too little fruit and vegetables. Above it a drink a lot of sugary, artificially colored drinks, and energy drinks. Irregularities in the nutrition of the respondents indicate a lack of knowledge of the principles of healthy eating.
Key words: energy drinks, nutrition, meals, nutritional recommendations
E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, A. J. Keutgen, W. Kozera,W. Mozolewski, J. Pomianowski,
T. Żmijewski str. 396
Możliwości czynnego wypoczynku preferowane przez młodzież studiującą w Bydgoszczy
THE POSSIBILITY OF ACTIVE REST PREFRRED BY YOUNG PEOPLE STUDYING IN BYDGOSZCZ
Research aimed at finding the preferred forms of active recreation by the university students has shown that young people do not rely on these sophisticated, but mostly based on spending quiet time free nook (40.1%). The priority was also communing with nature through along good hiking trails (34.4%) and participating in the most interesting events organized by local authorities in the place chosen to stay (outdoor events – picnics, festivals, etc.) (33.6%). Average student does not spend large sum of money on his or her rest during the year. Most often students allocate funds for this purpose within the range from 501 to 1000 zł (29.8%) and 500 zł and less (24.9%). They pay for their accommodation (60%) mainly without meals. Not a lot of students can afford on a full board accommodation (23.2%). It is important for them to stay near the catering facilities (31.9%), grocery stores (29.8%), but above all water reservoirs and rivers (55.6%).
Key words: active recreation, tourism, university students
J. Cichowska str. 400
Ocena organoleptyczna różnych gatunków mięsa poddanych grillowaniu
ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEAT TREATED WITH GRILLING
The aim of the study was organoleptic analysis of various types of meat (chicken, pork, beef) who underwent grilling (ceramic, cast iron). The highest process efficiency was achieved with chicken breast. It was also best assessed in organoleptic analysis, where almost all the tested qualities received the highest marks. Lower marks were granted to pork neck and then short loin beef. Similar trends were observed after heat treatment with both types of grills. The biggest differences between the types of meat were related to tenderness and overall appearance and in the case of a ceramic grill also taste.
Key words: organoleptic analysis, heat treatment, grilling, meat
T. Żmijewski, J. F. Pomianowski, W. Mozolewski, E. Wszelaczyńska, J. Pobereżny, A. J. Keutgen,
W. Kozera, T. Knapowski str. 405
Wybrane zachowania żywieniowe i percepcja własnej sylwetki przez młodzież gimnazjalną
SELECTED NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS AND SELF–PERCEPTION OF BODY SHAPE IN MIDDLE– SCHOOL STUDENTS
The aim of the research was the evaluation of selected eating behaviours and also the assessment of nutritional status and self– perception of body shape in adolescents. The survey was conducted in a group of 110 students attednding one of the middle– schools located in Tricity, in grades 1–3. An anonymus questionnaire form was used to evaluate body self– perception and to assess selected nutritional behaviors such as number of meals consumed daily and their regularity, frequency of having breakfast at home, second breakfast at school and snacking between meals.
The presented study showed that examined teenagers made nutritional mistakes such as irregular eating and snacking sweets between meals. Every seventh student was overweight. The majority of adolescents misperceived their body shape, what was more frequent among girls than boys. Inaccurate body perception may be a risk factor of eating disorders.
Key words: middle– school students, nutritional behaviors, self– perception of body shape, overweight
K. Żyłka, A. Platta str. 409